Words related to *gene-


daughter of Oedipus, her name in Greek might mean "in place of a mother," from anti "opposite, in place of" (see anti-) + gonē "womb, childbirth, generation," from root of gignesthai "to be born" related to genos "race, birth, descent" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget," with derivatives referring to procreation and familial and tribal groups).

autogenous (adj.)

"self-generated," 1846, earlier autogeneal (1650s), from Greek autogenetos "self-born," from autos "self" (see auto-) + genetos "born," from genes "formation, creation" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget"). The modern form and biological use of the word are said to be due to English paleontologist Richard Owen.

benign (adj.)
early 14c., from Old French benigne "kind, benign, merciful, gracious" (12c., Modern French bénin, fem. bénigne), from Latin benignus "kindly, kindhearted, friendly, generous," literally "well born," from bene "well" (see bene-) + gignere "to bear, beget," from genus "birth" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget"). For similar sense evolution, compare gentle, kind (adj.), generous. Related: Benignly.
cognate (adj.)

1640s, "allied by blood, connected or related by birth, of the same parentage, descended from a common ancestor," from Latin cognatus "of common descent" (source also of Spanish cognado, Italian cognato), from assimilated form of com "together" (see co-) + gnatus, past participle of gnasci, older form of nasci "to be born" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget").

Of things, "related in origin, traceable to the same source," by 1640s; specifically of words, "coming from the same root or original word but showing differences due to subsequent separate phonetic development," by 1782; of languages, "from the same original language," by 1799. French, Spanish, and Italian are cognate languages (all essentially descended from Latin) but are not cognate with Latin. English cognate, Spanish cognado and Italian cognato are cognate words from Latin cognatus. English brother, Sanskrit bhrtr-, Greek phratr, Latin frater, Russian brat are cognate words from the PIE root *bhrater. Words that are cognates are more like cousins than siblings; they develop in different languages.

Related: Cognatic; cognation (late 14c. in English as "blood-relationship, kinship"); cognateness. As a noun, "one connected to another by ties of kinship," from 1754.

congener (n.)

"a thing of the same kind as, or nearly allied to, another," 1730s, from French congénère (16c.), from Latin congener "of the same race or kind," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + gener-, stem of genus "race, kind" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget," with derivatives referring to procreation and familial and tribal groups). Related: Congenerous (1640s); congeneracy.

congenial (adj.)

1620s, "kindred, partaking of the same nature or natural characteristics," from assimilated form of Latin com "with, together" (see con-) + genialis "of birth," thus, "kindred" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget," with derivatives referring to procreation and familial and tribal groups). Sense of "agreeable" is first recorded 1711 on the notion of "having natural affinity." Also compare congenital.

congenital (adj.)
Origin and meaning of congenital

"existing from birth," 1796, from Latin congenitus "born or produced together," from assimilated form of com "together, with" (see con-) + genitus, past participle of gignere "to beget" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget"). This sense formerly belonged to congenial (which is attested from 1660s with this meaning). Related: Congenitally.

connate (adj.)

1640s, "allied in origin or nature;" 1650s, "born or produced at the same time, congenital," from Late Latin connatus "born together, born at the same time," past participle of connasci "to be born together," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + nasci "to be born" (Old Latin gnasci, from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget"). Related: Connation.

cosmogony (n.)

1690s, "a theory of the creation;" 1766 as "the creation of the universe;" 1777 as "science of the origin of the universe," from Latinized form of Greek kosmogonia "creation of the world," from kosmos "world, universe" (see cosmos) + -gonia "a begetting," from gonos "birth" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget"). Related: Cosmogonal; cosmogonic; cosmogonist.

cryogenic (adj.)

"of or involving very low temperatures," 1896, from cryo- "freezing" + -genic "having to do with production" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget"). Cryogen "freezing mixture, that which produces cold" is attested from 1875. Related: Cryogenics (1958).