Etymology
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Words related to *dekm-

seventeen (adj., n.)

"1 more than sixteen; the number which is one more than sixteen; a symbol representing this number;" late Old English seofontyne; see seven + -teen. Replacing Old English form seofon-teoða. Compare German siebzehn, a contraction of Middle High German siben-zehen.

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sixteen (adj., n.)

"1 more than fifteen, twice eight; the number which is one more than fifteen; a symbol representing this number;" Old English sixtyne, from siex (see six) + -teen. Similar formation in Old Frisian sextine, Middle Dutch sestien, Dutch zestien, German sechzehn, Old Norse sextan.

The age of the gods is always sixteen. Sixteen represents the number of perfection, of plenitude. In man it is after the sixteenth year that the first elements of decay begin to appear, and when the moon reaches the sixteenth digit it begins to decrease. [Alain Daniélou, "The Myths and Gods of India"]

From Latin contracted form sexdecim, sedecim come Italian sedici, French seize.

ten (adj., n.)

"1 more than nine, twice five; the number which is one more than nine; a symbol representing this number;" Old English ten (Mercian), tien (West Saxon), adjective and noun, from Proto-Germanic *tehun (source also of Old Saxon tehan, Old Norse tiu, Danish ti, Old Frisian tian, Old Dutch ten, Dutch tien, Old High German zehan, German zehn, Gothic taihun "ten"), from PIE root *dekm- "ten."

Meaning "ten o'clock" is from 1712. Tenner "ten-pound note" is slang first recorded 1861; as "ten-dollar bill," 1887 (ten-spot in this sense dates from 1848). The Texan's exaggerated ten-gallon hat is from 1919. The ten-foot pole that you wouldn't touch something with (1909) was originally a 40-foot pole; the notion is of keeping one's distance, as in the advice to use a long spoon when you dine with the devil. Ten-four "I understand, message received," is attested in popular jargon from 1962, from citizens band and emergency dispatch radio 10-code (in use in U.S. by 1950).

tenth (adj., n.)

"next in order after the ninth; an ordinal numeral; being one of ten equal parts into which a whole is regarded as divided;" mid-12c., tenðe; see ten + -th (1). Replacing Old English teoða (West Saxon), teiða (Northumbrian), which is preserved in tithe. Compare Old Saxon tehando, Old Frisian tegotha, Dutch tiende, Old High German zehanto, German zehnte, Gothic taihunda. As a noun from c. 1200.

thirteen (adj., n.)

"1 more than twelve; the number which is one more than twelve; a symbol representing this number;" late 14c., metathesis of Middle English thrittene, from Old English þreotene (Mercian), þreotiene (West Saxon), from þreo "three" (see three) + -tene (see -teen). Similar formation in Old Saxon thriutein, Old Frisian thretten, Dutch dertien, German dreizehn, Old Norse threttan, Swedish tretton. As a noun from late Old English.

Not an unlucky number in medieval England, but associated rather with the customary "extra item" (as in baker's dozen). Superstitions began with association with the Last Supper, and the unluckiness of 13 sitting down together to dine (attested from 1690s). Most of the modern superstitions (buildings with floor "12-A," etc.) have developed since 1890.

thousand (adj., n.)

"10 times one hundred; the number which is ten times one hundred; a symbol representing this number;" Old English þusend, from Proto-Germanic *thusundi (source also of Old Frisian thusend, Dutch duizend, Old High German dusunt, German tausend, Old Norse þusund, Gothic þusundi).

Related to words in Balto-Slavic (Lithuanian tūkstantis, Old Church Slavonic tysashta, Polish tysiąc, Russian tysiacha, Czech tisic), and probably ultimately a compound with indefinite meaning "great multitude, several hundred," literally "swollen-hundred," with first element from PIE root *teue- "to swell," second element from PIE root *dekm- "ten."

Used to translate Greek khilias, Latin mille, hence the refinement into the precise modern meaning. There was no general Indo-European word for "thousand." Slang shortening thou first recorded 1867. Thousand island dressing (1916) presumably is named for the region of New York on the St. Lawrence River.

tithe (n.)

a tenth part (originally of produce) due as support of the clergy, c. 1200, from Old English teogoþa (Anglian), teoþa (West Saxon) "tenth," from Proto-Germanic *tegunthan, from PIE *dekmto-, from PIE root *dekm- "ten." Retained in ecclesiastical sense while the form was replaced in ordinal use by tenth.

decemvir (n.)

"one of ten men," especially as the title of members of several bodies at different times and for different purposes in ancient Rome, mid-15c., from Latin decemvir (plural decemviri), from decem "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten") + vir "man" (from PIE root *wi-ro- "man").

decennoval (adj.)

"pertaining to the number nineteen," 1680s, from Late Latin decennovalis, from assimilated form of Latin decem "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten") + novem "nine" (see nine).

dodeca- 

before vowels dodec-, word-forming element used in technical compounds of Greek origin, signifying "twelve," from Latinized form of Greek dōdeka "twelve" (short for duodeka), from duo "two" (from PIE root *dwo- "two") + deka "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten"). Compare dozen.

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