Etymology
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Words related to *dekm-

hundred (adj., n.)

"1 more than ninety-nine, ten times ten; the number which is one more than ninety-nine; a symbol representing this number;" Old English hundred "the number of 100, a counting of 100," from Proto-Germanic *hunda-ratha- (source also of Old Frisian hundred, Old Saxon hunderod, Old Norse hundrað, German hundert); first element is Proto-Germanic *hundam "hundred" (cognate with Gothic hund, Old High German hunt), from PIE *km-tom "hundred," reduced from *dkm-tom- (source also of Sanskrit satam, Avestan satem, Greek hekaton, Latin centum, Lithuanian šimtas, Old Church Slavonic suto, Old Irish cet, Breton kant "hundred"), suffixed form of root *dekm- "ten."

The second element is Proto-Germanic *rath "reckoning, number" (as in Gothic raþjo "a reckoning, account, number," garaþjan "to count;" from PIE root *re- "to reason, count"). The common word for the number in Old English was simple hund, and Old English also used hund-teontig.

In Old Norse hundrath meant 120, that is the long hundred of six score, and at a later date, when both the six-score hundred and the five-score hundred were in use, the old or long hundred was styled hundrath tolf-roett ... meaning "duodecimal hundred," and the new or short hundred was called hundrath ti-rætt, meaning "decimal hundred." "The Long Hundred and its use in England" was discussed by Mr W.H. Stevenson, in 1889, in the Archæological Review (iv. 313-27), where he stated that amongst the Teutons, who longest preserved their native customs unimpaired by the influence of Latin Christianity, the hundred was generally the six-score hundred. The short hundred was introduced among the Northmen in the train of Christianity. [Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, 1907]

Meaning "division of a county or shire with its own court" (still in some British place names and U.S. state of Delaware) was in Old English and probably represents 100 hides of land. The Hundred Years War (which ran intermittently from 1337 to 1453) was first so called in 1874. The original Hundred Days was the period between Napoleon's restoration and his final abdication in 1815.

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icosahedron (n.)
"twenty-sided body," 1560s, from Latinized form of Greek eikosahedron, noun use of neuter of eikosahedros, from eikosi "twenty" + -hedra "seat, base, chair, face of a geometric solid," from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit." Greek eikosi is from PIE *wikmti- "twenty," from *wi- "in half" (hence "two") + (d)kmti-, from root *dekm- "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten"). Related: icosahedral.
nineteen (adj., n.)

"1 more than eighteen, nine more than ten; the cardinal number composed of 10 and 9; a symbol representing this number;" Middle English nīntene, from late Old English nigontene (Anglian), nigontyne (West Saxon); see nine + -teen. Cognate with Old Saxon nigentein, Old Frisian niogentena, Dutch negentien, Old High German niunzehan, German neunzehn, Old Norse nitjan, Danish nitten.

nonagenarian (n.)

"person who has reached 90 years old; person between 90 and 100 years old;" 1776, coined in English with -an + Latin nonagenarius "containing ninety" (in Late Latin "someone 90 years old"), from nonagen "ninety each," related to nonaginta "the number ninety," from nonus "ninth" (from novem "nine;" see nine) + -genaria "ten times," from PIE *dkm-ta-, from root *dekm- "ten." As an adjective, "of age 90 to 100," by 1867.

octogenarian (n.)

"person 80 years old or 80-odd years of age," 1789, with -an + French octogénaire "aged 80," from Latin octogenarius "containing eighty," from octogeni "eighty each," related to octoginta "eighty," from octo "eight" (see eight) + -genaria "ten times," from PIE *dkm-ta-, from root *dekm- "ten." As an adjective, "eighty years of age," from 1784. An earlier adjective was octogenary (1690s).

Pentecost 

Old English Pentecosten "Christian festival on seventh Sunday after Easter," from Late Latin pentecoste, from Greek pentekostē (hēmera) "fiftieth (day)," fem. of pentekostos, from pentekonta "fifty," from pente "five" (from PIE root *penkwe- "five"). The Hellenic name for the Old Testament Feast of Weeks, a Jewish harvest festival observed on 50th day of the Omer (see Leviticus xxiii.16).

percent 

"by the hundred;" with a preceding numeral expressing a proportion of the whole amount, 1560s, per cent, from Modern Latin per centum "by the hundred" (see per and see hundred). Until early 20c. often treated as an abbreviation and punctuated accordingly.

quattrocento (n.)

"the 15th century as a period in art and architecture," 1847, from Italian quattrocento, literally "four hundred," short for mille quattrocento "one thousand four hundred," in reference to a period beginning in C.E. 1400; see four + hundred.

The Italian pattern (also in trecento, cinquecento) is a stumbling-block for those accustomed to the English pattern of naming the centuries ordinally so that each contains only one year of the number that names it. Trecento means literally "three hundred," but stands for "the 1300s," which we call the 14th century.

Septuagint (n.)
"Greek version of the Old Testament," 1630s, earlier as the word for the translators collectively (1570s), from Late Latin septuaginta (interpretes) "seventy (interpreters)," from Latin septuaginta "seventy," from septem "seven" (see seven) + -ginta "tens, ten times," from PIE *dkm-ta-, from root *dekm- "ten."

So called in reference to the (incorrect) tradition that the translation was done 3c. B.C.E. by 70 or 72 Jewish scholars (in Middle English, the Seuenty turneres) from Palestine and completed in 70 or 72 days. The translation is believed now to have been carried out at different times by an undetermined number of Egyptian Jews. Often denoted by Roman numerals, LXX. Related: Septuagintal.
sexagenarian (n.)
1738, "person sixty years old," from Latin sexagenarius "containing sixty," from sexagenarius, from sexageni "sixty each, sixty at a time," from sexaginta "sixty," from combining form of sex (see six) + -genaria "ten times," from -ginta "tens," from PIE *dkm-ta-, from root *dekm- "ten." As an adjective from 1836.

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