Etymology
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Words related to *dekm-

dinar (n.)

Middle Eastern unit of currency; generic name of Arab gold coins, 1630s, from Arabic dinar, originally the name of a gold coin issued by the caliphs of Damascus, from late Greek denarion, from Latin denarius (see denarius).

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doyen (n.)

"a dean, the senior member of a body," originally "a commander of ten," early 15c., from Old French doyen "commander of ten," from Old French deien (see dean).

dozen (n.)

c. 1300, doseine, "collection of twelve things or units," from Old French dozaine "a dozen, a number of twelve" in various usages, from doze (12c.) "twelve," from Latin duodecim "twelve," from duo "two" (from PIE root *dwo- "two") + decem "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten"). The Old French fem. suffix -aine is characteristically added to cardinals to form collectives in a precise sense ("exactly 12," not "about 12").

The Latin word's descendants are widespread: Spanish docena, Dutch dozijn, German dutzend, Danish dusin, Russian duizhina, etc. The dozens "invective contest" (1928) originated in slave culture, the custom is probably African, the word probably from bulldoze (q.v.) in its original sense of "a whipping, a thrashing."

duodecimal (adj.)

"reckoning by twelves and powers of twelve," 1714, from Latin in duodecimo (folded) "in a twelfth" of a sheet, from ablative of duodecimus "twelfth" (from duodecim "twelve;" see dozen) + -al (1).

duodecimo (n.)

size of paper or page (more or less 6.5 to 7.5 inches high and 4.5 inches wide), 1650s, from Latin in duodecimo (folded) "in a twelfth" of a sheet, from ablative of duodecimus "twelfth," from duodecim "twelve" (see dozen). So called because made originally by folding a printer's sheet and cutting it in 12 leaves. Often abbreviated 12mo. Also "a book in which each page is the twelfth part of the printer's sheet." Related: Duodecimary.

eighteen (adj., n.)

"1 more than seventeen, twice nine; the number which is one more than seventeen; a symbol representing this number;" late 14c., eightene, earlier ahtene (c. 1200), from Old English eahtatiene, eahtatyne; see eight + -teen. Cognate with Old Frisian schtatine, Old Saxon ahtotian, Dutch achttien, Old High German ahtozehan, German achtzehn, Old Norse attjan, Swedish adertån.

fifteen (adj., n.)

"1 more than fourteen; the number which is one more than fourteen; a symbol representing this number;" Old English fiftyne, from fif "five" (from PIE root *penkwe- "five") + tyne (see -teen). For vowel shift, see met (v.). Cognate with Old Saxon fiftein, Old Frisian fiftine, Old Norse fimtan, Swedish femton, Dutch vijftien, German fünfzehn, Gothic fimftaihun "fifteen." French quinze, Italian quindici "fifteen" are from Latin quindecim (from quinque "five;" see quinque-; + -decim (see -teen). The number of players forming a side in rugby.

fourteen (adj., n.)

"1 more than thirteen; the number which is one more than thirteen; a symbol representing this number;" c. 1300, from Old English feowertyne; see four + -teen. Compare Old Saxon fiertein, Old Frisian fiuwertine, Dutch veertien, Old High German fiorzehan, German vierzehn, Danish fjorten, Gothic fidwortaihun.

hecatomb (n.)

1590s, from Latinized form of Greek hekatombe, properly (and literally) "offering of 100 oxen," but generally "a great public sacrifice." It is a compound of hekaton "one hundred," which perhaps is dissimilation of *hem-katon, with hen, neuter of heis "one" + *katon "hundred." The second element is bous "ox" (from PIE root *gwou- "ox, bull, cow"). The first month of the Attic calendar (corresponding to July-August) was Hekatombaion, in which sacrifices were made.

hendeca- 
word-forming element meaning "eleven," from Latinized form of Greek hendeka "eleven," from hen, neuter of heis "one," from PIE *hems-, from root *sem- (1) "one; as one, together with" + deka "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten").

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