Etymology
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Words related to *dekm-

decile (adj.)

1670s in astrology, of planets, "one-tenth part of the zodiac distant from one another;" 1882 in statistics; from French décile or Medieval Latin *decilis, from Latin decem "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten") on the model of quintilis, sextilis.

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decimal (adj.)

c. 1600, "pertaining to a tenth or ten," from Medieval Latin decimalis "of tithes or tenths," from Latin decimus "tenth," from decem "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten"). Applied to Arabic notation before modern use in reference to decimal fractions (fraction whose denominator is a power of 10) emerged 1610s. As a noun from 1640s, "a decimal fraction." Decimal point is by 1711; the use of the point seems to be due to Scottish mathematician John Napier, "Marvellous Merchiston," c. 1619.

decimate (v.)

c. 1600, "to select by lot and put to death every tenth man," from Latin decimatus, past participle of decimare "the removal or destruction of one-tenth," from decem "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten").

The killing of one in ten, chosen by lots, from a rebellious city or a mutinous army was a punishment sometimes used by the Romans. The word has been used (loosely and unetymologically, to the irritation of pedants) since 1660s for "destroy a large but indefinite number of." Related: Decimated; decimating.

decimation (n.)

mid-15c., decimacioun, "the paying of tithes, a tithing, a tax of 10% on income," from Old French decimacion and directly from Late Latin decimationem (nominative decimatio) "the taking of a tenth," noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin decimare "the removal or destruction of one-tenth," from decem "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten").

As "punishment by capital execution of every tenth man, chosen by lot," from 1580s; loose or transferred sense of "destruction of a great but indefinite number, severe loss" is attested by 1680s.

decuple (adj.)

"tenfold, containing ten times as many," 1610s, from French décuple (late 15c.), from Latin decuplus "tenfold," from decem "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten") + -plus (see -plus).

decussate (v.)

"to intersect so as to form a figure like the letter X, to cross," 1650s, from Latin decussatus, past participle of decussare "to divide crosswise, to cross in the form of an 'X,'" from decussis "the figure 'ten'" (in Roman numerals, represented by X), also "a large copper coin ten times the value of an as," from decem "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten"). Related: Decussated; decussating; decussation. As an adjective, by 1806.

denarius (n.)

ancient Roman silver coin, 1570s, from Latin denarius, noun use of adjective meaning "containing ten," and short for denarius nummus "the coin containing ten (aces)," from deni- "by tens," from decem "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten"). In English money reckoning, "a penny," this having been, like the Roman denarius, the largest silver coin (hence d for "pence" in l.s.d.).

denier (n.1)

medieval French silver coin corresponding to the English penny, early 15c., from Old French dener, a small coin of slight value, roughly equivalent to the English penny, in use in France from the time of Charlemagne to early modern times, from Latin denarium, from denarius, name of a Roman coin (source also of Spanish dinero); see denarius.

dicker (v.)

"haggle, bargain in a petty way," 1802 (implied in dickering), American English, perhaps from dicker (n.) "a unit or package of tens," especially hides (attested from late 13c.), a Germanic word (compare Swedish decker, Danish deger, German decher), which is perhaps from Latin decuria "parcel of ten" (supposedly a unit of barter on the Roman frontier; compare German Decher "set of ten things"), from decem "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten") on model of centuria from centum.

dime (n.)
Origin and meaning of dime

chosen 1786 as name for U.S. 10-cent coin (originally of silver), from dime "a tenth, tithe" (late 14c.), from Old French disme (Modern French dîme) "a tenth part" and directly from Medieval Latin decima, from Latin  decima (pars) "tenth (part)," from decem "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten").

The verb meaning "to inform" (on someone) is from the 1960s, from the then-cost of a pay-phone call. Alliterative phrase a dime a dozen "almost worthless" is recorded by 1930 (as an actual price, for eggs, etc., by 1861). Phrase stop on a dime attested by 1927 (a dime being the physically smallest unit of U.S. currency); turn on a dime is by 1913. Dime store "retail outlet selling everything for (more or less) 10 cents" is by 1928.

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