Etymology
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Words related to *dekm-

deca- 
before a vowel, dec-, word-forming element meaning "ten," from Latinized combining form of Greek deka "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten"). In the metric system, "multiplied by ten;" while deci- means "divided by ten."
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decade (n.)

mid-15c., "ten parts" (of anything; originally in reference to the divisions of Livy's history), from Old French décade (14c.), from Late Latin decadem (nominative decas), from Greek dekas (genitive dekados) "group of ten," from deka "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten"). Meaning "period of ten consecutive years" is 1590s in English. Related: Decadal; decadary.

decagon (n.)

"plane figure having ten sides and angles," 1630s, from Modern Latin decagonum, from Greek dekagonon, from deka "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten") + gōnia "corner, angle" (from PIE root *genu- (1) "knee; angle"). Related: Decagonal.

Decalogue (n.)

"Ten Commandments," late 14c., from Latin decalogus, from Greek dekalogos, from the phrase hoi deka logoi used to translate "Ten Commandments" in Septuagint. See deca- + Logos.

Decameron (n.)

c. 1600, from Italian Decamerone, titleof Boccaccio's 14c. collection of 100 tales supposedly told over 10 days, from Greek deka "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten") + hēmera "day," from PIE *Hehmer "day" (source also of Armenian awr "day"). Related: Decameronic.

decapod (n.)

1819, "ten-legged animal, type of crustacean having ten legs" (crabs, lobsters, shrimp), from French décapode (1806), from Modern Latin Decapoda (animalia), from Greek dekapoda, neuter plural of dekapous "ten-footed" (see ten + foot (n.)). From 1885 in reference to a type of locomotive with ten driving-wheels.

decathlon (n.)

modern composite Olympic event consisting of ten challenges, 1912, from deca- "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten") + Greek athlon "contest, prize," which is of uncertain origin.

December (n.)

"twelfth and last (by modern reckoning) month of the calendar, the month of the winter solstice," late Old English, from Old French decembre, from Latin December, from decem "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten"); tenth month of the old Roman calendar, which began with March.

The -ber in four Latin month names is probably from -bris, an adjectival suffix. Tucker thinks that the first five months were named for their positions in the agricultural cycle, and "after the gathering in of the crops, the months were merely numbered."

If the word contains an element related to mensis, we must assume a *decemo-membris (from *-mensris). October must then be by analogy from a false division Sep-tem-ber &c. Perhaps, however, from *de-cem(o)-mr-is, i.e. "forming the tenth part or division," from *mer- ..., while October = *octuo-mr-is. [T.G. Tucker, "Etymological Dictionary of Latin"]

Decembrist, in Russian history in reference to the insurrection against Nicholas I in December 1825, is by 1868 in English, translating Russian dekabrist, from dekabr' "December."

decennial (adj.)

"existing or continuing for ten years; occurring every ten years," 1650s, with -al (1) + Latin decennium, from decennis "of 10 years," from decem "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten") + annus "year" (see annual (adj.)). For vowel change, see biennial. As a noun, "a tenth anniversary," by 1884.

deci- 

in the metric system, word-forming element denoting one-tenth of the standard unit of measure, 1801, from French deci-, taken arbitrarily from Latin decimus "tenth," from decem "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten").

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