Etymology
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Words related to *deik-

dedication (n.)

late 14c., dedicacioun, "action of consecrating to a deity or sacred use," from Old French dedicacion "consecration of a church or chapel" (14c., Modern French dédication) and directly from Latin dedicationem, noun of action from dedicare "consecrate, proclaim, affirm, set apart," from de "away" (see de-) + dicare "proclaim" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly," and see diction). Meaning "the giving of oneself to some purpose" is from c. 1600. Sense of "an inscription to a patron or friend prefixed to a literary or musical composition" is from 1590s.

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dictate (n.)
Origin and meaning of dictate

1590s, "positive order or command;" 1610s "authoritative rule, maxim, or precept," from Latin dictatum "a thing said, something dictated," noun use of neuter past participle of dictare "say often, prescribe," frequentative of dicere "to say, speak" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly").

dictation (n.)

1650s, "authoritative utterance," from Late Latin dictationem (nominative dictatio) "a dictating, dictation," noun of action from past-participle stem of dictare  "say often, prescribe," frequentative of dicere "to say, speak" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly"). Meaning "act or practice of expressing orally for another to write down" is by 1727.

dictator (n.)
Origin and meaning of dictator

late 14c., dictatour, "Roman chief magistrate with absolute authority," from Old French dictator and directly from Latin dictator, agent noun from dictare "say often, prescribe," frequentative of dicere "to say, speak" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly").

In Latin, a dictator was a judge in the Roman republic temporarily invested with absolute power; this historical sense was the original one in English. The transferred sense of "absolute ruler, person possessing unlimited powers of government" is from c. 1600; that of "one who has absolute power or authority" of any kind, in any sphere is from 1590s. 

discus (n.)

circular piece of stone or metal plate about 12 inches in diameter, pitched from a fixed spot the greatest possible distance as a gymnastic exercise and an athletic contest, 1650s, from Latin discus "discus, disk," from Greek diskos "disk, quoit, platter," related to dikein "to throw," which is perhaps from PIE *dik-skos-, from root *deik- "to show, pronounce solemnly; also in derivatives referring to the directing of words or objects" [Watkins]; but Beekes says dikein is of Pre-Greek origin. The notion is "to throw" as "to direct an object."

horribile dictu 
Latin, "horrible to say, dreadful to relate," from neuter of horribilis (see horrible) + ablative supine of dicere "to say, speak" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly").
judge (n.)
mid-14c., "public officer appointed to administer the law" (early 13c. as a surname), also judge-man; from Old French juge, from Latin iudex "one who declares the law" (source also of Spanish juez, Italian giudice), a compound of ius "right, law" (see just (adj.)) + root of dicere "to say" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly").

Extended from late 14c. to persons to decide any sort of contest; from 1550s as "one qualified to pronounce opinion." In Jewish history, it refers to a war leader vested with temporary power (as in Book of Judges), from Latin iudex being used to translate Hebrew shophet.
maledictory (adj.)

"pertaining to or containing a curse," 1660s, from Latin maledictus, from maledicere "to speak badly or evil of, slander" (from male "badly;" see mal- + dicere "to say," from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly") + -ory.

mirabile dictu (interj.)

Latin, literally "wonderful to relate," from neuter of mirabilis "wonderful, marvelous, extraordinary; strange, singular" (see marvel (n.)) + ablative supine of dicere "to say, speak" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly"). The expression is found in Virgil. Mirable "wonderful, marvelous" was used in English 15c.

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