Words related to *deik-
1540s, "to disown, disinherit (children)," from Latin abdicatus, past participle of abdicare "to disown, disavow, reject" (specifically abdicare magistratu "renounce office"), literally "proclaim as not belonging to one," from ab "off, away from" (see ab-) + dicare "proclaim" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly," and see diction). Meaning "divest oneself of office, privilege, etc., before the term expires" is recorded by 1610s in English (it was in classical Latin). Related: Abdicated; abdicating.
1550s, "a disowning," from Latin abdicationem (nominative abdicatio) "voluntary renunciation, abdication," noun of action from past-participle stem of abdicare "disown, disavow, reject," from ab "off, away from" (see ab-) + dicare "proclaim" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly," and see diction). Sense of "resignation of inherent sovereignty" is from 1680s.
1530s (implied in addicted) "to devote or give up (oneself) to a habit or occupation," from Latin addictus, past participle of addicere "to deliver, award, yield; make over, sell," properly "give one's assent to," but figuratively "to devote, consecrate; sacrifice, sell out, betray, abandon." This is from ad "to" (see ad-) + dicere, which was usually "to say, declare" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly"), but also could be "adjudge, allot."
"It is a yielding to impulse, and generally a bad one" [Century Dictionary]. Old English glossed Latin addictus literally with forscrifen. Related: Addicted; addicting.
late 14c., ajuge, "to make a judicial decision, decide by judicial opinion," from Old French ajugier "to judge, pass judgment on" (Modern French adjuger; the -d- was restored 14c. and English followed suit by 16c.), from Latin adiudicare "grant or award as a judge," from ad "to" (see ad-) + iudicare "to judge," which is related to iudicem "a judge" (see judge (n.)). The sense of "have an opinion" is from c. 1400. Related: Adjudged; adjudging.
also apodeictic, "clearly demonstrated," 1650s, from Latin apodicticus, from Greek apodeiktikos, from apodeiktos, verbal adjective of apodeiknynai "to show off, demonstrate, show by argument, point out, prove," literally "to point away from" (other objects, at one), from apo "off, away" (see apo-) + deiknynai "to show" (from PIE root *deik- "to show"). Related: Apodictical (1630s); apodictically (1610s).
"vindicate by inflicting pain or evil on the wrongdoer," late 14c., from Anglo-French avenger, Old French avengier, from a- "to" (see ad-) + vengier "take revenge" (Modern French venger), from Latin vindicare "to claim, avenge, punish" (see vindication). See revenge (v.) for distinction of use. Related: Avenged; avenging. As a noun to go with it, 16c. English tried avenge, avengeance, avengement, avenging.
"act of speaking well of or blessing; invocation of divine blessing," c. 1400, benediccioun, from Late Latin benedictionem (nominative benedictio), "a blessing," noun of action from benedicere (in classical Latin two words, bene dicere) "to speak well of, bless," from bene "well" (from PIE root *deu- (2) "to do, perform; show favor, revere") + dicere "to say, speak" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly").
The oldest sense in English is of grace before meat. French re-Latinized its form of the word in 16c.; the older French form, beneiçon passed into Middle English as benison.
Middle English bitoknen "be a symbol or emblem of," from late Old English betacnian "to denote, to mean, signify; be a visible sign or emblem of," from be- + Old English tacnian "to signify," from tacn "sign" (see token) or directly from Proto-Germanic *taiknōjanan. It is attested from c. 1200 as "to augur, presage, portend," also "be or give evidence of." Related: Betokened; betokening.
mid-14c., condicioun, "particular mode of being of a person or thing," also "a requisite or prerequisite, a stipulation," from Old French condicion "stipulation; state; behavior; social status" (12c., Modern French condition), from Medieval Latin conditionem (nominative conditio), properly condicio "agreement; stipulation; the external position, situation, rank, place, circumstances" of persons, "situation, condition, nature, manner" of things, from condicere "to speak with, talk together, agree upon," in Late Latin "consent, assent," from assimilated form of com "together" (see con-) + dicere "to speak" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly").
Classical Latin condicio was confused in Late Latin with conditio "a making," from conditus, past participle of condere "to put together." The sense evolution in Latin apparently was from "stipulation" to "situation, mode of being."
Meaning "rank or state with respect to ordered society" is from late 14c. in English. From the notion of "prerequisite" comes the sense of "a restricting or limiting circumstance" (late 14c.). Also in Middle English "personal character, disposition" (mid-14c.).
1570s, "speak against, oppose" (a sense now obsolete); 1580s, "assert the contrary or opposite of," from Latin contradictus, past participle of contradicere, in classical Latin contra dicere "to speak against," from contra "against" (see contra (prep., adv.)) + dicere "to say, speak" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly").
Meaning "deny the words or assertions of, speak in contradiction" is from c. 1600. Of statements, etc., "be inconsistent with," c. 1600. Related: Contradicted; contradicting; contradictive.