mid-13c., "Damascus;" late 14c., Damaske, "costly textile fabric woven in elaborate patterns," literally "cloth from Damascus," the Syrian city noted for fabric; see Damascus. From c. 1600 as "a pink color," a reference to the Damask rose, which is native to that region. As an adjective, "woven with figures," 1640s. Related: Damasked.
"cloth woven in parallel diagonal lines," early 14c., Scottish and northern English variant of Middle English twile, from Old English twili "woven with double thread, twilled," partial loan-translation of Latin bilix "with a double thread" (with Old English twi- substituted for cognate Latin bi-, both from PIE root *dwo- "two"); the second element from Latin licium "thread," a word of unknown etymology.
1620s, name of a kind of closely and firmly woven fabric imported from the East, from French percale, a word of uncertain origin, perhaps ultimately from Persian pargalah "a rag." In modern use (1840) a fabric of French manufacture.
Old English webb "woven fabric, woven work, tapestry," from Proto-Germanic *wabjam "fabric, web" (source also of Old Saxon webbi, Old Norse vefr, Dutch webbe, Old High German weppi, German gewebe "web"), from PIE *(h)uebh- "to weave" (see weave (v.)).
Meaning "spider's web" is first recorded early 13c. Applied to the membranes between the toes of ducks and other aquatic birds from 1570s. Internet sense is from 1992, shortened from World Wide Web (1990). Web browser, web page both also attested 1990.
"woven fabric, pliable stuff made of intertexture of threads or fibers," Old English claþ "a cloth, sail, cloth covering, woven or felted material to wrap around one," hence, also, "garment," from Proto-Germanic *kalithaz (source also of Old Frisian klath "cloth," Middle Dutch cleet, Dutch kleed "garment, dress," Middle High German kleit, German Kleid "garment"), which is of obscure origin, perhaps a substratum word.
As an adjective, "made or consisting of cloth," from 1590s. Meaning "distinctive clothing worn by some group" (servants of one house, men of some profession or trade) is from 1590s, hence The cloth "the clerical profession" (1701).