Etymology
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would 
Old English wolde, past tense and past subjunctive of willan "to will" (see will (v.)). Would-be (adj.) "wishing to be, vainly pretending" is first recorded c. 1300.
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could (v.)

Old English cuðe, past tense of cunnan "to be able" (see can (v.1)); ending changed 14c. to standard English -d(e). The unetymological -l- was added 15c.-16c. on model of would, should, where it is historical. Could be as a response to a suggestion, indicating it may be correct, is by 1938.

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self-styled (adj.)

"called by oneself," hence, "pretended, would-be," 1823, from self- + past participle of style (v.).

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counterintuitive (adj.)

also counter-intuitive, "contrary to intuition, opposed to what would be expected," 1955, from counter- + intuitive.

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philosophist (n.)

"a would-be philosopher," a disparaging term for a rationalist or skeptic, a philosophe; 1798, from French philosophiste; see philosophy + -ist.

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vespiary (n.)
"wasp's nest," 1816, from Latin vespa "wasp" (see wasp) on model of apiary. A proper formation would be *vespary.
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abscessed (adj.)
1846, in pathology, adjective from abscess (n.). If there is a verb abscess it would be a back-formation from this.
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standstill (n.)
"state of cessation of movement," 1702, from stand (v.) + still (adv.). Earlier the notion would have been expressed simply by stand.
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presumably (adv.)

1640s, "with presumption, without examination," from presumable + -ly (2). As a qualifier, "probably, as one would reasonably suppose," from 1830.

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amniotic (adj.)
1822, from amnion + -ic, perhaps from or based on French amniotique. The form is irregular; a classically correct word would be *amniac.
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