Etymology
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working (adj.)
late 14c., "active, busy," present-participle adjective from work (v.). From 1630s as "engaged in physical toil or manual labor as a means of livelihood." Working class is from 1789 as a noun, 1839 as an adjective. Working-day is from late 15c.; working man is by 1816.
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working (n.)
"action, operation," verbal noun from work (v.).
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hard-working (adj.)
also hardworking, 1708, from hard (adv.) + working (adj.).
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work (v.)

a fusion of Old English wyrcan (past tense worhte, past participle geworht) "prepare, perform, do, make, construct, produce; strive after" (from Proto-Germanic *wurkjanan); and Old English wircan (Mercian) "to operate, function, set in motion," a secondary verb formed relatively late from Proto-Germanic noun *werkan (see work (n.)).

Sense of "perform physical labor" was in Old English, as was sense "ply one's trade" and "exert creative power, be a creator." Transitive sense "manipulate (physical substances) into a desired state or form" was in Old English. Meaning "have the expected or desired effect" is from late 14c. In Middle English also "perform sexually" (mid-13c.). Related: Worked (15c.); wrought; working.

To work in "insert, introduce or intermix," as one material with another, is by 1670s; hence the figurative sense "cause to enter or penetrate by repeated efforts." To work up (transitive) "bring into some state or condition" is by 1590s of material things, 1690s of immaterial things; hence "bring by labor or special effort to a higher state or condition" (1660s). The meaning "excite, stir up, raise, rouse" is from c. 1600. To work over "beat up, thrash" is from 1927. To work against "attempt to subvert" is from late 14c.

To work out "bring about or procure (a result) by continued labor or effort" is by 1530s. As "bring to a fuller or finished state, elaborate, develop," by 1821. Meaning "to solve, calculate the solution to" a problem or question is by 1848. Intransitive sense "make its way out" is from c. 1600; the sense of "succeed" is attested by 1909. Sense of "exhaust (a mine, etc.) by working it" is from 1540s. The pugilistic sense of "box for practice (rather than in a contest) is by 1927, hence the general sense of "practice, rehearse" (1929) and that of "take exercise" (by 1948).

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lunch-pail (n.)
such as working men used to carry their lunches to job sites, 1891, from lunch (n.) + pail (n.). As an adjective, indicating working-class men or values, by 1990s, also lunch-bucket.
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inoperative (adj.)
"not working," 1630s, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + operative (adj.).
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day care (n.)

also daycare, day-care, "care and supervision of young children during the day," especially on behalf of working parents, by 1943, American English, from day + care (n.). Early references are to care for children of women working national defense industry jobs.

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thaumaturge (n.)

"wonder-worker," 1715, from Medieval Latin thaumaturgus, from Greek thaumatourgos "wonder-working; conjurer," from thauma (genitive thaumatos) "wonder, astonishment; wondrous thing," literally "a thing to look at," from root of theater, + -ourgia "a working," from ergon "work" (from PIE root *werg- "to do").

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cooperation (n.)

"the act of working together to one end," 1620s, from French coopération, or directly from Late Latin cooperationem (nominative cooperatio) "a working together," noun of action from past-participle stem of cooperari "to work together," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see com-) + operari "to work," from PIE root *op- "to work, produce in abundance."

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oi (interj.)

1962, vulgar or working class pronunciation of hoy a call or shout to attract attention (compare ahoy).

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