Etymology
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wood (n.)
Old English wudu, earlier widu "tree, trees collectively, forest, grove; the substance of which trees are made," from Proto-Germanic *widu- (source also of Old Norse viðr, Danish and Swedish ved "tree, wood," Old High German witu "wood"), from PIE *widhu- "tree, wood" (source also of Welsh gwydd "trees," Gaelic fiodh- "wood, timber," Old Irish fid "tree, wood"). Out of the woods "safe" is from 1792.
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wood (adj.)
"violently insane" (now obsolete), from Old English wod "mad, frenzied," from Proto-Germanic *woda- (source also of Gothic woþs "possessed, mad," Old High German wuot "mad, madness," German wut "rage, fury"), from PIE *wet- (1) "to blow; inspire, spiritually arouse;" source of Latin vates "seer, poet," Old Irish faith "poet;" "with a common element of mental excitement" [Buck]. Compare Old English woþ "sound, melody, song," Old Norse oðr "poetry," and the god-name Odin.
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cord-wood (n.)

"cut wood sold by the cord for fuel," 1630s, from cord in the wood-measure sense + wood (n.).

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heart-wood (n.)
also heartwood, 1801, from heart (n.) in the sense "central part of a tree" (c. 1400) + wood (n.).
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match-wood (n.)

also matchwood, 1590s, "wood used to start a fire;" 1838, "wood which has been split to proper size for matches," from match (n.1) + wood (n.). From the latter sense it has been used as a figure of speech for wood which has been broken or splintered into very small pieces. Also in this sense is matchsticks (1791).

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wooded (adj.)
"covered with growing trees," c. 1600, from wood (n.).
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woodsy (adj.)
1848, American English, from woods (see wood (n.)) + -y (2).
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woodlouse (n.)
also wood-louse, 1610s, from wood (n.) + louse (n.). So called from being found in old wood.
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woodwind (n.)
1876, from wood (n.) + wind (n.1) in the musical instrument sense. Related: Woodwinds.
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