fem. proper name, from Irish cailin "a girl, a little girl," diminutive of caile "girl, woman."
fem. proper name, from Hebrew be'ulah "married woman," fem. past participle of ba'al "he married" (see baal).
fem. proper name, from Latin, from Greek Persis, literally "a Persian woman," related to Perses "Persian" (see Persian).
"Jewish woman," late 14c. (late 13c. as a surname), from Old French juise, fem. of jüif (see Jew).
masc. proper name, most famously in classical history king of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great (compare philippic); the from Latin Philippus, from Greek Philippos "fond of horses," from philos "beloved, loving" (see philo-) + hippos "horse" (from PIE root *ekwo- "horse"). Skelton made it the name applied to a common sparrow (perhaps from resemblance to the bird's call). In 16c., Philip and Cheyney was a way to say "any two common men."
You remember the story of the poor woman who importuned King Philip of Macedon to grant her justice, which Philip refused : the woman exclaimed, "I appeal" : the king, astonished, asked to whom she appealed : the woman replied, "From Philip drunk to Philip sober." [Emerson, "New England Reformers," 1844]
fem. proper name, biblical ancestor of David, from Hebrew Ruth, probably a contraction of reuth "companion, friend, fellow woman." The Old Testament book tells her story.
also Sacajawea, name of the Shoshoni woman who accompanied and aided the Lewis & Clark expedition.
She had been a captive among the Hidatsas (a Siouan people), and her Hidatsa name was tsaka'aka wi'a, lit. 'bird woman' (Hartley, 2002). Her Shoshoni name, rendered as Sacajawea and translated 'boat launcher,' may have been a folk-etymological transformation of the Hidatsa term (Shaul, 1972). [Bright]
Her image appeared on U.S. dollar coins from 2000.