Etymology
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with (prep.)

Old English wið "against, opposite, from, toward, by, near," a shortened form related to wiðer, from Proto-Germanic *withro- "against" (source also of Old Saxon withar "against," Old Norse viðr "against, with, toward, at," Middle Dutch, Dutch weder, Dutch weer "again," Gothic wiþra "against, opposite"), from PIE *wi-tero-, literally "more apart," suffixed form of *wi- "separation" (source also of Sanskrit vi "apart," Avestan vi- "asunder," Sanskrit vitaram "further, farther," Old Church Slavonic vutoru "other, second"). Compare widow (n.).

Sense shifted in Middle English to denote association, combination, and union, partly by influence of Old Norse vidh, and also perhaps by Latin cum "with" (as in pugnare cum "fight with"). In this sense, it replaced Old English mid "with," which survives only as a prefix (as in midwife). Original sense of "against, in opposition" is retained in compounds such as withhold, withdraw, withstand.

Often treated as a conjunction by ungrammatical writers and used where and would be correct. First record of with child "pregnant" is recorded from c. 1200. With it "cool" is African-American vernacular, recorded by 1931. French avec "with" was originally avoc, from Vulgar Latin *abhoc, from apud hoc, literally "with this."

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withal (adv.)
"in addition," late 14c., from Middle English with alle (c. 1200), superseding Old English mid ealle "wholly" (see with).
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within (adv., prep.)
Old English wiðinnan "within, from within," literally "against the inside," see with + in.
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herewith (adv.)
"along with this," late Old English herwið; see here + with.
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withhold (v.)
c. 1200, from with- "back, away" (see with) + holden "to hold" (see hold (v.)); probably a loan-translation of Latin retinere "to withhold." Related: Withheld; withholding. Past participle form withholden was still used 19c.
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forthwith (prep.)
c. 1200, from forth + with. The Old English equivalent was forð mid. As an adverb, early 14c.
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wherewith (adv.)

"with which, that with which," c. 1200, from where (in the sense of "in which position or circumstances") + with.

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withers (n.)
1570s, probably from a dialectal survival of Old English wiðer "against, contrary, opposite" (see with) + plural suffix. Usually said to be so called because the withers are the parts of the animal that oppose the load. Compare German Widerrist "withers," from wider "against" + Rist "wrist."
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without (adv., prep.)
Old English wiðutan "outside of, from outside," literally "against the outside" (opposite of within), see with + out (adv.). As a word expressing lack or want of something (opposite of with), attested from c. 1200. In use by late 14c. as a conjunction, short for without that.
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therewith (adv.)
c. 1200, "along with, in company with," from there + with. Old English þær wiþ meant "against, in exchange for." Similar formation in Swedish dervid, Danish derved.
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