Etymology
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wisdom (n.)
Old English wisdom "knowledge, learning, experience," from wis (see wise (adj.)) + -dom. A common Germanic compound (Old Saxon, Old Frisian wisdom, Old Norse visdomr, Old High German wistuom "wisdom," German Weistum "judicial sentence serving as a precedent"). Wisdom teeth so called from 1848 (earlier teeth of wisdom, 1660s), a loan-translation of Latin dentes sapientiae, itself a loan-translation of Greek sophronisteres (used by Hippocrates, from sophron "prudent, self-controlled"), so called because they usually appear ages 17-25, when a person reaches adulthood.
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sage (n.2)

"wise man, man of profound wisdom, venerable man known as a grave philosopher," mid-14c., from sage (adj.). Originally applied to the Seven Sages — Thales, Solon, Periander, Cleobulus, Chilon, Bias, and Pittacus — men of ancient Greece renowned for practical wisdom.

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insipience (n.)
early 15c., "lack of wisdom, foolishness," from Old French insipience (15c.) or directly from Latin insipientia "folly, unwisdom," from insipientem "unwise, foolish" (see insipient).
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prudence (n.)

mid-14c. (c. 1200 as a surname), "intelligence; discretion, foresight; practical wisdom to see what is suitable or profitable;" also one of the four cardinal virtues, "wisdom to see what is virtuous;" from Old French prudence (13c.) and directly from Latin prudentia "a foreseeing, foresight, sagacity, practical judgment," contraction of providentia "foresight" (see providence, which is a doublet). The secondary sense of "knowledge, science" (late 14c.) is preserved in jurisprudence.

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sapience (n.)

late 14c., "wisdom, understanding, sageness; the reasonable soul, that which distinguishes humans from beasts," from Old French sapience and directly from Latin sapientia "good taste, good sense, discernment; intelligence, wisdom," from sapiens "sensible; shrewd, knowing, discrete;" also "well-acquainted with the true value of things," like Greek sophos (see sapient). Formerly also sometimes especially "intelligent taste" (1660s). OED calls it "A learned synonym. Now rare in serious use."

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Metis 

Greek goddess personifying prudence, first wife of Zeus, from Greek Mētis, literally "advice, wisdom, counsel; cunning, skill, craft," from PIE root *me- (2) "to measure."

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sentential (adj.)

late 15c., sentencial, "full of wisdom," of maxims, etc., from Latin sententialis, from sententia "thought; expression of a thought" (see sentence (n.)). By 1640s as "of or pertaining to a sentence." Related: Sententially.

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Thoth 
ancient Egyptian god of wisdom and magic, hieroglyphics, and the reckoning of time, from Latin, from Greek Thoth, from Egyptian Tehuti. Usually represented as a human figure with the head of an ibis. By the Greeks, assimilated to their Hermes.
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deepness (n.)

Old English deopnes "deep water," also "a mystery or secret;" see deep (adj.) + -ness. From late 12c. as "distance downward;" c. 1200 as "wisdom, profundity."

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lip-service (n.)
"something proffered but not performed, service with the lips only; insincere profession of good will," 1640s, from lip (n.) + service (n.1). Earlier in same sense was lip-labour (1530s). This was a general pattern in 16c.-17c., for example lip-wisdom (1580s), the wisdom of those who do not practice what they preach; lip-religion (1590s), lip-devotion "prayer without genuine faith or desire" (c. 1600); lip-comfort (1630s).
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