Etymology
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winter (n.)

Old English winter (plural wintru), "the fourth and coldest season of the year, winter," from Proto-Germanic *wintruz "winter" (source also of Old Frisian, Dutch winter, Old Saxon, Old High German wintar, German winter, Danish and Swedish vinter, Gothic wintrus, Old Norse vetr "winter"), probably literally "the wet season," from PIE *wend-, nasalized form of root *wed- (1) "water; wet"). On another old guess, cognate with Gaulish vindo-, Old Irish find "white." The usual PIE word is *gheim-.

As an adjective in Old English. The Anglo-Saxons counted years in "winters," as in Old English ænetre "one-year-old;" and wintercearig, which might mean either "winter-sad" or "sad with years." Old Norse Vetrardag, first day of winter, was the Saturday that fell between Oct. 10 and 16.

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winter (v.)
"to pass the winter (in some place)," late 14c., from winter (n.). Related: Wintered; wintering.
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wintergreen (n.)
type of plant, 1540s, from winter (n.) + green (n.). So called from keeping green through the winter.
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winterize (v.)
1938, on model of earlier summerize (1935); from winter (n.) + -ize. Related: Winterized; winterizing.
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wintry (adj.)
Old English wintrig (see winter (n.) + -y (2)); also winterlic; "but the modern word appears to be a new formation" [Barnhart]. Similar formation in German wintericht.
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overwinter (v.)

"to pass the winter (in some place)," 1895, from over- + winter (v.). From 1933 as "to live through the winter;" transitive sense, in reference to animals, etc., "to keep alive over the winter" is by 1945. Related: Overwintered; overwintering. Old English had oferwintran "get through the winter."  

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midwinter (n.)

also mid-winter, "the middle or depth of winter," Old English midwinter, also midde winter; see mid (adj.) + winter (n.). The middle of winter, traditionally the period around the winter solstice (Dec. 21, winter being reckoned from the first of November). As an adjective from mid-12c.

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*wed- (1)
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "water; wet."

It forms all or part of: abound; anhydrous; carbohydrate; clepsydra; dropsy; hydra; hydrangea; hydrant; hydrargyrum; hydrate; hydraulic; hydro-; hydrogen; hydrophobia; hydrous; Hydrus; inundate; inundation; kirsch-wasser; nutria; otter; redound; redundant; surround; undine; undulant; undulate; undulation; vodka; wash; water (n.1); wet; whiskey; winter.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Hittite watar, Sanskrit udrah, Greek hydor, Old Church Slavonic and Russian voda, Lithuanian vanduo, Old Prussian wundan, Gaelic uisge "water;" Latin unda "wave;" Old English wæter, Old High German wazzar, Gothic wato "water."
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hibernal (adj.)

1620s (figurative), "pertaining to the later years of life;" literal sense "pertaining to winter" attested from 1640s; from Latin hibernalis "wintry," from hibernus "of winter," from hiems "winter," from PIE root *gheim- "winter."  

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hiemal (adj.)

"pertaining to winter," 1550s, from Latin hiemalis "of winter, wintry," from hiems "winter," from PIE root *gheim- "winter."

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