The spelling with wh- developed early 15c. The sense in whole number is from early 14c. Whole milk is from 1782. On the whole "considering all facts or circumstances" is from 1690s. For phrase whole hog, see hog (n.).
"the cardinal number one more than eight or one less than ten; the number which is one more than eight;" Middle English nīn, from Old English nigen, from Proto-Germanic *newun (source also of Old Saxon nigun, Old Frisian niugun, Old Norse niu, Swedish nio, Middle Dutch neghen, Dutch negen, Old High German niun, German neun, Gothic niun "nine").
This is from PIE root *newn "nine" (source also of Sanskrit nava, Avestan nava, Greek ennea (with unetymological initial e-), Albanian nende, Latin novem (with change of -n- to -m- by analogy of septem, decem), Lithuanian devyni, Old Church Slavonic deveti (the Balto-Slavic forms by dissimilation of -n- to -d-), Old Irish noin, Welsh naw).
As "a symbol representing the number nine," late 14c. The proverbial nine lives of a cat are attested from 17c. Nine-to-five "the average workday" is attested from 1935. Nine days (or nights) has been proverbial since mid-14c. for the time which a wonder or novelty holds attention; the expression nine days' wonder is from 1590s. The Nine "the Muses" is from c. 1600. Also see nines.
"1 more than sixty-eight; the number which is one more than sixty-eight; a symbol representing this number;" see sixty + nine. In the sexual sense, 1888, as a translation of French faire soixante neuf, literally "to do 69." So called from the similarity of positions to the arrangement of the numerals.
"nine pieces of knotted cord fastened to a handle and used to flog the bare back," 1690s, probably so called in reference to its "claws." It was a legal instrument of punishment in British Navy until 1881.
"next in order or rank after the eighth; being one of nine equal parts into which a whole is regarded as divided;" c. 1300, nynþe, an alteration or replacement (by influence of nine) of nigonðe, from Old English nigoða, nigend. As a noun, "ordinal numeral corresponding to nine," late 13c. As the name of a musical interval, 1590s. Related: Ninthly.
1570s, "an aggregate of nine," from Latin novenarius (adj.) "consisting of nine," from novem "nine" (see nine). As an adjective, "pertaining to the number nine or consisting of nine," c. 1600.