Etymology
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-yer 
agent noun suffix, variant of -ier used after a vowel or -w-.
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-ide 

word-forming element used in chemistry to coin names for simple compounds of one element with another element or radical; originally abstracted from oxide, which was the first so classified, in which the -ide is from acide "acid."

The suffix is really -dus (-do-), the -i- repr. the orig. or supplied stem-vowel ; it occurs without the vowel in absurdus, absurd, blandus, bland, crudus, raw (crude), etc. [Century Dictionary]
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gyneco- 

also gynaeco-, before a vowel gynec-, word-forming element meaning "woman, female," from Latinized form of Greek gynaiko-, combining form of gynē "woman, female," from PIE root *gwen- "woman." Also see æ (1).

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deca- 
before a vowel, dec-, word-forming element meaning "ten," from Latinized combining form of Greek deka "ten" (from PIE root *dekm- "ten"). In the metric system, "multiplied by ten;" while deci- means "divided by ten."
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penta- 

word-forming element in words of Greek origin or formation meaning "five, containing five," from Greek penta- (before a vowel pent-), combining form of pente "five," related to Aeolian pempte (from PIE root *penkwe- "five"), with -a- probably by analogy of hepta-, ennea-, deka-.

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-oma 

word-forming element, from Greek -oma, with -o-, lengthened stem vowel + -ma, suffix forming neuter nouns and nouns that indicate result of verbal action (equivalent of Latin -men); especially taken in medical use as "morbid growth, tumor," based on sarcoma, carcinoma.

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cyto- 
before a vowel, cyt-, word-forming element, from Latinized form of Greek kytos "a hollow, receptacle, basket" (from PIE *ku-ti-, from root *(s)keu- "to cover, conceal"); used in modern science since c. 1859 for "cell," perhaps especially from the sense (in Aristophanes) of "a cell of a hive of wasps or bees."
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-oid 

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a ______," from Latinized form of Greek -oeidēs (three syllables), from eidos "form," related to idein "to see," eidenai "to know;" literally "to see" (from PIE *weid-es-, from root *weid- "to see"). The -o- is connective or a stem vowel from the previous element. Often implying an incomplete or imperfect resemblance to the thing indicated.

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-ing (2)

suffix used to form the present participles of verbs and the adjectives derived from them, from Old English present-participle suffix -ende, from PIE *-nt- (cognates: German -end, Gothic -and, Sanskrit -ant, Greek -on, Latin -ans, -ens). The vowel weakened in late Old English and the spelling with -g began 13c.-14c. among Anglo-Norman scribes who naturally confused it with -ing (1).

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-ate (1)

word-forming element used in forming nouns from Latin words ending in -atus, -atum (such as estate, primate, senate). Those that came to English via French often arrived with -at, but an -e was added after c. 1400 to indicate the long vowel. The suffix also can mark adjectives formed from Latin past participles in -atus, -ata (such as desolate, moderate, separate); again, they often were adopted in Middle English as -at, with an -e appended after c. 1400.

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