Etymology
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vineyard (n.)
c. 1300, replacing Old English wingeard, from vine + yard (n.1). Compare German weingarten.
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cru (n.)

"French vineyard," 1824, from French cru "vineyard," literally "growth" (16c.), from Old French crois (12c.; Modern French croît), from croiss-, stem of croistre "growth, augment, increase," ultimately from Latin crescere "come forth, spring up, grow, thrive" (from PIE root *ker- (2) "to grow").

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vine (n.)

c. 1300, "plant which bears the grapes from which wine is made," from Old French vigne "vine, vineyard" (12c.), from Latin vinea "vine, vineyard," from vinum "wine," from PIE *win-o- "wine," an Italic noun related to words for "wine" in Greek, Armenian, Hittite, and non-Indo-European Georgian and West Semitic (Hebrew yayin, Ethiopian wayn); probably ultimately from a lost Mediterranean language word *w(o)in- "wine."

From late 14c. in reference to any plant with a long slender stem that trails or winds around. The European grape vine was imported to California via Mexico by priests in 1564.

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vintage (n.)

early 15c., "harvest of grapes, yield of wine from a vineyard," from Anglo-French vintage (mid-14c.), from Old French vendage, vendenge "vine-harvest, yield from a vineyard," from Latin vindemia "a gathering of grapes, yield of grapes," from combining form of vinum "wine" (see wine (n.)) + stem of demere "take off" (from de- "from, away from" + emere "to take;" from PIE root *em- "to take, distribute"). Sense shifted to "age or year of a particular wine" (1746), then to a general adjectival sense of "being of an earlier time" (1883). Used of cars since 1928.

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vintner (n.)
"wine merchant," c. 1400 (late 12c. as a surname), alteration of Anglo-French vineter, Old French vinetier "wine-merchant; grape-harvester," from Medieval Latin vinetarius "a wine dealer," from Latin vinetum "vineyard," from vinum "wine" (see vine).
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Ameslan (n.)
1972, rough acronym from American Sign Language, which was known by that name since 1960, but its history goes back to 1817, evolving from French Sign Language (introduced at American School for the Deaf in Hartford, Conn.) and indigenous sign languages, especially that of Martha's Vineyard. [See "Everyone Here Spoke Sign Language," Nora Ellen Groce, Harvard University Press, 1985]
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vignette (n.)
1751, "decorative design," originally a design in the form of vine tendrils around the borders of a book page, especially a picture page, from French vignette, from Old French diminutive of vigne "vineyard" (see vine). Sense transferred from the border to the picture itself, then (1853) to a type of small photographic portrait with blurred edges very popular mid-19c. Meaning "literary sketch" is first recorded 1880, probably from the photographic sense.
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Martha 

fem. proper name, from Aramaic (Semitic) Maretha, literally "lady, mistress," fem. of mar, mara "lord, master." As the type name of one concerned with domestic affairs, it is from Luke x.40-41. Martha's Vineyard was discovered 1602 by English explorer Gabriel Archer and apparently named by him, but the identity of the Martha he had in mind is unknown now.

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eleventh (adj., n.)

"next in order after the tenth; an ordinal numeral; being one of eleven equal parts into which a whole is regarded as divided;" late 14c., eleventhe, superseding earlier ellefte (c. 1300), enlefte (early 13c.), from Old English endleofta; see eleven + -th (1). Eleventh hour "last moment, just before it is too late" is in Old English, from the parable of the laborers in the vineyard (Matthew xx.1-16); as an adjective by 1829.

But aboute the elleventhe hour he wente out and founde other stondynge, and he seide to hem, what stonden ye idel heere al dai? [Wyclif, Matthew xx] 
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chaparral (n.)

"dense, low shrub thicket," 1850, American English, from Spanish chaparro "evergreen oak," perhaps from Basque txapar "little thicket," diminutive of sapar "heath, thicket."

In Spain, a chaparral is a bush of a species of oak. The termination al signifies a place abounding in; as, chaparral, a place of oak-bushes, almendral, an almond orchard; parral, a vineyard; cafetal, a coffee plantation, etc., etc.

This word, chaparral, has been introduced into the language since our acquisition of Texas and New Mexico, where these bushes abound. It is a series of thickets, of various sizes, from one hundred yards to a mile through, with bushes and briars, all covered with thorns, and so closely entwined together as almost to prevent the passage of any thing larger than a wolf or hare. [John Russell Bartlett, "Dictionary of Americanisms," 1859]
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