Etymology
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vinegar (n.)
early 14c., from Old French vinaigre "vinegar," from vin "wine" (from Latin vinum; see wine (n.)) + aigre "sour" (see eager). In Latin, it was vinum acetum "wine turned sour," acetum for short (see acetic), also used figuratively for "wit, shrewdness;" and compare Greek oxos "wine vinegar," which is related to oxys "sharp" (from PIE root *ak- "be sharp, rise (out) to a point, pierce"). Related: Vinegary; vinegarish.
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vinaigrette (n.)
1690s, a type of condiment, from French vinaigrette (14c.), diminutive of vinaigre "(aromatic) vinegar" (see vinegar). Use in reference to a type of dressing for salads or cold vegetables is attested from 1877. From 1811 as "small box or bottle for carrying aromatic vinegar."
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ester (n.)
compound formed by an acid joined to an alcohol, 1852, coined in German in 1848 by German chemist Leopold Gmelin (1788-1853), professor at Heidelberg. The name is "apparently a pure invention" [Flood], perhaps a contraction of or abstraction from Essigäther, the German name for ethyl acetate, from Essig "vinegar" + Äther "ether" (see ether). Essig is from Old High German ezzih, from a metathesis of Latin acetum (see vinegar).
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acetic (adj.)
1808 (in acetic acid), from French acétique "pertaining to vinegar, sour, having the properties of vinegar," from Latin acetum "vinegar" (properly vinum acetum "wine turned sour;" see vinegar), originally past participle of acere "be sharp; be sour" (related to acer "sharp"), from PIE *ak-eto-, suffixed form of root *ak- "be sharp, rise (out) to a point, pierce."
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*ak- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "be sharp, rise (out) to a point, pierce."

It forms all or part of: acacia; acanthus; accipiter; acer; acerbic; acerbity; acervate; acervulus; acescent; acetic; acid; acicular; acme; acne; acrid; acridity; acrimony; acro-; acrobat; acromegaly; acronym; acrophobia; acropolis; acrostic; acrylic; acuity; aculeate; acumen; acupressure; acupuncture; acute; aglet; ague; Akron; anoxic; awn; coelacanth; dioxin; deoxy-; eager; ear (n.2) "grain part of corn;" edge (n.); egg (v.) "to goad on, incite;" eglantine; epoxy; ester; exacerbation; hammer; hypoxia; mediocre; oxalic; oxide; oxy-; oxygen; oxymoron; paragon; pyracanth; paroxysm; selvage; vinegar.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek akros "at the end, at the top, outermost; consummate, excellent," akis "sharp point," akros "at the farthest point, highest, outermost," akantha "thorn," akme "summit, edge," oxys "sharp, bitter;" Sanskrit acri- "corner, edge," acani- "point of an arrow," asrih "edge;" Oscan akrid (ablative singular) "sharply;" Latin acer (fem. acris) "sharp to the senses, pungent, bitter, eager, fierce," acutus "sharp, pointed," acuere "to sharpen," acerbus "harsh, bitter," acere "be sharp, be bitter," acus "a needle, pin," ocris "jagged mountain;" Lithuanian ašmuo "sharpness," akstis "sharp stick;" Old Lithuanian aštras, Lithuanian aštrus "sharp;" Old Church Slavonic ostru, Russian óstryj "sharp;" Old Irish er "high;" Welsh ochr "edge, corner, border;" Old Norse eggja "goad;" Old English ecg "sword;" German Eck "corner."
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acetification (adj.)
"process of turning to vinegar," 1753, from Latin acetum "vinegar" (see acetic) + -fication, indicating "making or causing."
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souse (v.)
late 14c., "to pickle, steep in vinegar," from Old French sous (adj.) "preserved in salt and vinegar," from Frankish *sultja or some other Germanic source (compare Old Saxon sultia "salt water," Old High German sulza "brine"), from Proto-Germanic *salt- (from PIE root *sal- "salt"). Related: Soused; sousing.
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aceto- 
before vowels acet-, word-forming element from acetic and generally indicating compounds from or related to acetic acid, thus from Latin acetum "vinegar."
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marinade (n.)

"a pickle for fish or meat, generally of wine and vinegar with herbs and spices," 1704, from French marinade "spiced vinegar or brine for pickling," from mariner "to pickle in (sea) brine," from Old French marin (adj.) "of the sea," from Latin marinus "of the sea," from mare "sea, the sea, seawater," from PIE root *mori- "body of water." As a verb, "to steep in a marinade," from 1680s. Related: Marinaded; marinading.

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balsamic (adj.)
c. 1600, "health-giving," from balsam + -ic. From 1640s as "pertaining to balsam," 1670s as "yielding balsam," 1714 as "aromatic, fragrant." Balsamic vinegar is by 1849.
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