"of or pertaining to Dalmatia," c. 1600; see Dalmatia. As a noun from early 15c. in reference to a kind of robe or vestment. Related: Dalmatical (1590s).
c. 1600 as an architectural term, "the top or cover of a wall, usually sloped to shed water," a specialized use of cope (n.), the cape-like vestment worn by priests, which is a a variant of cape (n.1). Cope (v.) "to provide (someone) with a cope or cloak" is attested from late 14c., and in the architectural sense of "to form a cope, bend as an arch or vault" it is recorded from 1660s. Coping saw, used for cutting curved patterns, is attested by 1887.
sleeveless ecclesiastical vestment, c. 1300, cheisible, from Old French chesible (12c., Modern French chasuble), from Medieval Latin casubla, from Late Latin *casubula, unexplained alteration of Latin casula "a little hut," diminutive of casa "cottage, house" (see casino); used by c. 400 in transferred sense of "outer garment" on the notion that hooded garments resembled or suggested little houses. The English form of the word was conformed to French from c. 1600.
Old English stole "long robe, scarf-like garment worn by clergymen," from Latin stola "robe, vestment" (also source of Old French estole, Modern French étole, Spanish estola, Italian stola), from Greek stole "a long robe;" originally "garment, equipment," from root of stellein "to place, array," with a secondary sense of "to put on" robes, etc., from PIE root *stel- "to put, stand, put in order," with derivatives referring to a standing object or place. Meaning "women's long garment of fur or feathers" is attested from 1889.
"long, loose outer garment reaching almost to the floor, worn by men or women over other dress," late 13c., from Old French robe "long, loose outer garment" (12c.), from a Germanic source (compare Old High German rouba "vestments"), from West Germanic *raubo "booty" (cognate with Old High German roub "robbery, breakage"), which also yielded rob (v.).
Presumably the notion is of fine garments taken from an enemy as spoil, and the Old French word had a secondary sense of "plunder, booty," while Germanic cognates had both senses; as in Old English reaf "plunder, booty, spoil; garment, armor, vestment."
The meaning "dressing gown" is from 1854; such extended senses often appear first in French, e.g. robe de chambre "dressing gown," robe de nuit "nightgown." From c. 1300 in reference to official vestments and thus indicative of position or membership in a religious order, guild, etc.; metonymic sense of The Robe for "the legal profession" is attested from 1640s.