Etymology
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vegetarian (n.)
1839, irregular formation from vegetable (n.) + -arian, as in agrarian, etc. "The general use of the word appears to have been largely due to the formation of the Vegetarian Society in Ramsgate in 1847" [OED]. As an adjective from 1849. An earlier adjective was anti-carnivorous (1828).
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vegan (n.)

1944, probably based on a modification of vegetarian; coined by English vegetarian Donald Watson (1910-2005) to distinguish those who abstain from all animal products (eggs, cheese, etc.) from those who merely refuse to eat the animals.

'Vegetarian' and 'Fruititarian' are already associated with societies that allow the 'fruits'(!) of cows and fowls, therefore it seems we must make a new and appropriate word. As this first issue of our periodical had to be named, I have used the title "The Vegan News". Should we adopt this, our diet will soon become known as a VEGAN diet, and we should aspire to the rank of VEGANS. [The Vegan News, No. 1, November 1944]
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veg 
since 1898 as an abbreviation of vegetarian; 1918 of vegetable. As a verb, colloquially short for vegetate, by 1985 (usually with out).
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cave-bear (n.)

Ice Age vegetarian bear of Europe and western Asia (extinct from c. 10.000 years ago), known from fossil remains found in caves, 1826, from cave (n.) + bear (n.).

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Manichaeism (n.)

1550s, "the religion of the Manichees" (late 14c.) a Gnostic Christian sect named for its founder, Mani (Latin Manichæus), c. 215-275, Syriac-speaking apostle from a Jesus cult in Mesopotamia in 240s, who taught a universal religion. Vegetarian and visionary, they saw "particles of light and goodness" trapped in evil matter and regarded Satan as co-eternal with God. The universe was a scene of struggle between good and evil.

The sect was characterized by dualism and a double-standard of perfectionist "elects" and a larger group of fellow travelers who would require several reincarnations before their particles of light would be liberated. It spread through the Roman Empire and survived at late as 7c.; its doctrines were revived or redeveloped by the Albigenses and Catharists.

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