Etymology
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vat (n.)
c. 1200, large tub or cistern, "especially one for holding liquors in an immature state" [Century Dictionary], southern variant (see V) of Old English fæt "container, vat," from Proto-Germanic *fatan (source also of Old Saxon, Old Norse fat, Old Frisian fet, Middle Dutch, Dutch vat, Old High German faz, German faß), from PIE root *ped- (2) "container" (source also of Lithuanian puodas "pot").
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fettle (n.)
"condition, state, trim," c. 1750, in a glossary of Lancashire dialect, from northern Middle English fettle (v.) "to make ready, fix, prepare, arrange" (late 14c.), which is of uncertain origin, perhaps akin to Old English fetian "to fetch" (see fetch (v.)); perhaps from Old English fetel "a girdle, belt," from Proto-Germanic *fatilaz (source also of German fessel "fetter, chain," Old Norse fetill "strap, brace"), from PIE *ped- (2) "container" (see vat). Related: Fettler; fettling.
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V 
In Middle English, -u- and -v- were used interchangeably, though with a preference for v- as the initial letter (vnder, vain, etc.) and -u- elsewhere (full, euer, etc.). The distinction into consonant and vowel identities was established in English by 1630, under influence of continental printers, but into 19c. some dictionaries and other catalogues continued to list -u- and -v- words as a single series.

No native Anglo-Saxon words begin in v- except those (vane, vat, vixen) altered by the southwestern England habit of replacing initial f- with v- (and initial s- with z-). Confusion of -v- and -w- also was a characteristic of 16c. Cockney accents.

As a Roman numeral, "five." In German rocket weapons systems of World War II, it stood for Vergeltungswaffe "reprisal weapon." V-eight as a type of motor engine is recorded from 1929 (V-engine is attested from 1909), so called for the arrangement. The V for "victory" hand sign was conceived January 1941 by Belgian politician and resistance leader Victor de Laveleye, to signify French victoire and Flemish vrijheid ("freedom"). It was broadcast into Europe by Radio België/Radio Belgique and popularized by the BBC by June 1941, from which time it became a universal allied gesture.
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cask (n.)

"water-tight, barrel-like vessel for containing liquids," mid-15c., from French casque "a cask; a helmet," from Spanish casco "skull; wine-vat; helmet," originally "potsherd," from cascar "to break up," from Vulgar Latin *quassicare, frequentative of Latin quassare "to shake, shatter" (see quash). The sense evolution is uncertain.

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anker (n.)
also anchor, liquid measure in North Sea and Baltic trade (equivalent to from 9 to a little more than 10 gallons), early 14c., from Dutch, related to German Anker, Swedish ankare, Medieval Latin anceria "keg, vat," which is of unknown origin.
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hive (n.)

Old English hyf "beehive," from Proto-Germanic *hufiz (source also of Old Norse hufr "hull of a ship"), from PIE *keup- "round container, bowl" (source also of Sanskrit kupah "hollow, pit, cave," Greek kypellon "cup," Latin cupa "tub, cask, vat;" see cup (n.)). Figurative sense of "swarming, busy place" is from 1630s.

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angio- 

before vowels angi-, word-forming element meaning "vessel of the body," now often "covered or enclosed by a seed or blood vessel," from Latinized form of Greek angeion "case, capsule, vessel of the body," diminutive of angos "vessel, jar, vat, vase," which is of unknown origin. Beekes says "Possibly a Mediterranean loanword ..., as kitchen utensils are often borrowed."

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barrel (n.)

"cylindrical vessel or cask, generally bulging in the middle and made of wooden staves bound by hoops," c. 1300, from Old French baril "barrel, cask, vat" (12c.), with cognates in all Romance languages (Italian barile, Spanish barril, etc.), but of unknown origin. Also a measure of capacity of varying quantity. Meaning "metal tube of a gun" is from 1640s. Barrel-roll (n.) in aeronautics is from 1920. To be over a barrel figuratively, "in a helpless or vulnerable condition," is by 1914 and might suggest corporal punishment.

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cooper (n.)

"craftsman who makes barrels, tubs, and other vessels from wooden staves and metal hoops," late 14c. (late 12c. as a surname), either from Old English (but the word is unattested) or from a Low German source akin to Middle Dutch cuper, East Frisian kuper, from Low German kupe (German Kufe) "cask, tub, vat," which is from or cognate with Medieval Latin cupa (see coop (n.)).

A dry cooper makes casks, etc., to hold dry goods, a wet cooper those to contain liquids, a white cooper pails, tubs, and the like for domestic or dairy use. [OED]

As a verb, "to make barrels, casks, etc.," 1746. The surname Cowper (pronounced "cooper") preserves a 15c. spelling.

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vaticinate (v.)
"to prophecy, foretell," 1620s, from Latin vaticinatus, past participle of vaticinari, from vates (see vates) + formative element -cinus. Related: Vaticinated; vaticinating; Vaticinal.
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