Etymology
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vanity (n.)
c. 1200, "that which is vain, futile, or worthless," from Old French vanite "self-conceit; futility; lack of resolve" (12c.), from Latin vanitatem (nominative vanitas) "emptiness, aimlessness; falsity," figuratively "vainglory, foolish pride," from vanus "empty, void," figuratively "idle, fruitless," from PIE *wano-, suffixed form of root *eue- "to leave, abandon, give out." Meaning "self-conceited" in English is attested from mid-14c. Vanity table is attested from 1936. Vanity Fair is from "Pilgrim's Progress" (1678).
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*eue- 
*euə-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to leave, abandon, give out," with derivatives meaning "abandoned, lacking, empty."

It forms all or part of: avoid; devastation; devoid; evacuate; evanescent; vacant; vacate; vacation; vacuity; vacuole; vacuous; vacuum; vain; vanish; vanity; vaunt; void; wane; want; wanton; waste.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit una- "deficient;" Avestan va- "lack," Persian vang "empty, poor;" Armenian unain "empty;" Latin vacare "to be empty," vastus "empty, waste," vanus "empty, void," figuratively "idle, fruitless;" Old English wanian "to lessen," wan "deficient;" Old Norse vanta "to lack."
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futility (n.)
1620s, from French futilité or directly from Latin futilitatem (nominative futilitas) "worthlessness, emptiness, vanity," from futilis "vain, worthless" (see futile). Hence, jocular futilitarian (1827, n. and adj.); futilitarianism.
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Abel 
masc. proper name, in the Old Testament the second son of Adam and Eve, from Hebrew Hebhel, literally "breath," also "vanity;" "so called from his short life and sudden death" [Thayer].
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Messalina 

"scheming, licentious, sexually voracious woman," by 1795, in reference to Valeria Messalina (died 48 C.E.), notorious third wife of the Roman emperor Claudius, long a figure of vanity and immorality.

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amour-propre (n.)

1775, French, "sensitive self-love, self-esteem;" see amour and proper.

Vanity usually gives the meaning as well, &, if as well, then better. [Fowler]

Middle English had it, translated, as proper love "self-love."

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self- 
word forming element indicating "oneself," also "automatic," from Old English use of self (pron.) in compounds, such as selfbana "suicide," selflice "self-love, pride, vanity, egotism," selfwill "free will."
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coquetry (n.)

"effort to attract love from a motive of vanity or amusement, trifling in love," 1650s, from French coquetterie, from coqueter (v.) "to flirt," originally "to swagger or strut like a cock," from coquet (see coquet).

Coquetry whets the appetite; flirtation depraves it .... ["Ik. Marvel" (Donald Grant Mitchell), "Reveries of a Bachelor," 1851]
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ostentatious (adj.)

1701, "characterized by display or show from vanity or pride;" 1713, "showy, gaudy, intended for vain display," from ostentation + -ous. Earlier in a similar sense were ostentative (c. 1600); ostentive (1590s); ostentous (1620s). Related: Ostentatiously; ostentatiousness (1650s).

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overblown (adj.)

late 15c., "blown over, passed away" (as a wind or storm), past-participle adjective from verb overblow "to blow over the top of," of a storm, "to abate, pass on" (late 14c.), from over- + blow (v.1). Sense of "past the time of blossoming or blooming" (as a flower), 1610s, is from blow (v.2). Figurative meaning "inflated, puffed up" (with vanity, etc.) is from 1864.

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