Etymology
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valiant (adj.)
early 14c. (late 12c. in surnames), "brave, courageous, intrepid in danger," from Anglo-French vaylant, and Old French vaillant "stalwart, brave," present-participle adjective from valoir "be worthy," originally "be strong," from Latin valere "be strong, be well, be worth, have power, be able, be in health," from PIE root *wal- "to be strong." As a noun, "valiant person," from c. 1600. Related: Valiantly.
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pot-valiant (adj.)

"courageous through drink, fighting drunk," 1640s, from pot (n.1) + valiant (adj.).

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countervail (v.)

late 14c., countrevaillen, "to be worth as much as," also "to prevail against, resist with equal force," from Anglo-French countrevaloir, Old French contrevaloir "to be effective against, be comparable to," from Latin phrase contra valere "to be worth against" (see contra- and valiant). Related: Countervailing.

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*wal- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to be strong."

It forms all or part of: ambivalence; Arnold; avail; bivalent; convalesce; countervail; Donald; equivalent; evaluation; Gerald; Harold; invalid (adj.1) "not strong, infirm;" invalid (adj.2) "of no legal force;" Isold; multivalent; polyvalent; prevalent; prevail; Reynold; Ronald; valediction; valence; Valerie; valetudinarian; valiance; valiant; valid; valor; value; Vladimir; Walter; wield.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin valere "be strong, be well, be worth;" Old Church Slavonic vlasti "to rule over;" Lithuanian valdyti "to have power;" Celtic *walos- "ruler," Old Irish flaith "dominion," Welsh gallu "to be able;" Old English wealdan "to rule," Old High German -walt, -wald "power" (in personal names), Old Norse valdr "ruler."

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brave (v.)
"to face with bravery," 1761, from French braver, from brave "valiant" (see brave (adj.)). Related: Braved; braving.
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Alcestis 
wife of Admetus, she offered her life for her husband and was rescued from the Underworld by Herakles, a Latinized form of Greek Alkestis, literally "valiant, courageous," from alke "protection, help, strength, power."
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valiance (n.)
"valiant character" (obsolete or archaic), mid-15c., earlier vailance (late 14c.), from Anglo-French vaillaunce, valiauns (c. 1300) or Old French vaillance "value, price; merit, worth; virtue, fine qualities; courage, valor" (12c.), from Old French valiant "stalwart, brave," present-participle adjective from valoir "be worthy," originally "be strong," from Latin valere "be strong, be well, be worth, have power, be able, be in health" (from PIE root *wal- "to be strong").
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prowess (n.)

early 13c., prouesse, "an act of bravery;" c. 1300, "military bravery combined with skill in combat," from Old French proece "prowess, courage, brave deed" (Modern French prouesse), from prou, later variant of prud "brave, valiant," from Vulgar Latin *prodem (source also of Spanish proeza, Italian prodezza; see proud (adj.)). Prow was in Middle English as a noun meaning "advantage, profit," also as a related adjective ("valiant, brave"), but it has become obsolete. "In 15-17th c. often a monosyllable" [OED].

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virtuous (adj.)
c. 1300, "characterized by vigor or strength; having qualities befitting a knight; valiant, hardy, courageous;" from Old French vertuos "righteous; potent; of good quality; mighty, valiant, brave" (12c.), from Late Latin virtuosus "good, virtuous," from Latin virtus "moral strength, high character, goodness; manliness; valor, bravery, courage (in war); excellence, worth," from vir "man" (from PIE root *wi-ro- "man").

From mid-14c. in English as "having beneficial or efficacious properties;" late 14c. (of persons) as "having excellent moral qualities; conforming to religious law." Related: Virtuously; virtuousness.
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hector (v.)
"to bluster, bully, domineer," 1650s, from slang hector (n.) "a blustering, turbulent, pervicacious, noisy fellow" [Johnson], 1650s, from Hector of the "Iliad," in reference to his encouragement of his fellow Trojans to keep up the fight. Earlier in English the name was used generically for "a valiant warrior" (late 14c.). Related: Hectored; hectoring.
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