Etymology
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umbrage (n.)

early 15c., "shadow, darkness, shade," from Old French ombrage "shade, shadow," from noun use of Latin umbraticum "of or pertaining to shade; being in retirement," neuter of umbraticus "of or pertaining to shade," from umbra "shade, shadow," from PIE root *andho- "blind; dark" (source also of Sanskrit andha-, Avestan anda- "blind, dark").

The English word had many figurative uses in 17c.; the one remaining, "suspicion that one has been slighted," is recorded by 1610s; hence phrase to take umbrage at, attested from 1670s. Perhaps the sense notion is similar to whatever inspired the modern (by 2013) slang verbal phrase throw shade "(subtly) insult (something or someone)."

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umbel (n.)
1590s in botany, from Latin umbella "parasol, sunshade," diminutive of umbra "shade, shadow" (see umbrage).
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umbrageous (adj.)
"shady," 1580s, from French ombrageux, from Old French umbrageus, from umbre "shade," from Latin umbra "shade, shadow" (see umbrage).
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umbra (n.)
1590s, "phantom, ghost," a figurative use from Latin umbra "shade, shadow" (see umbrage). Astronomical sense of "shadow cast by the earth or moon during an eclipse" is first recorded 1670s. Meaning "an uninvited guest accompanying an invited one" is from 1690s in English, from a secondary sense among the Romans. Related: Umbral.
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adumbrate (v.)
1580s, "to outline, to sketch," from Latin adumbratus "sketched, shadowed in outline," also "feigned, unreal, sham, fictitious," past participle of adumbrare "cast a shadow over;" in painting, "to represent (a thing) in outline," from ad "to" (see ad-) + umbrare "to cast in shadow," from PIE root *andho- "blind; dark" (see umbrage). Meaning "to overshadow" is from 1660s in English. Related: Adumbrated; adumbrating.
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somber (adj.)

1760 "gloomy, shadowy" (earlier sombrous, c. 1730), from French sombre "dark, gloomy," from Old French sombre (14c.), from an adjective from Late Latin subumbrare "to shadow," from sub "under" (see sub-) + umbra "shade, shadow" (perhaps from a suffixed form of PIE *andho- "blind, dark;" see umbrage). Related: Somberly; somberness.

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adumbration (n.)

1550s, "faint sketch, imperfect representation," from Latin adumbrationem (nominative adumbratio) "a sketch in shadow, sketch, outline," noun of action from past-participle stem of adumbrare "to cast a shadow, overshadow," in painting, "represent (a thing) in outline," from ad- "to" (see ad-) + umbrare "to cast in shadow," from PIE root *andho- "blind; dark" (see umbrage).

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umbrella (n.)
"hand-held portable canopy which opens and folds," c. 1600, first attested in Donne's letters, from Italian ombrello, from Late Latin umbrella, altered (by influence of umbra) from Latin umbella "sunshade, parasol," diminutive of umbra "shade, shadow" (see umbrage).

A sunshade in the Mediterranean, a shelter from the rain in England; in late 17c. usage, usually as an Oriental or African symbol of dignity. Said to have been used by women in England from c. 1700; the use of rain-umbrellas carried by men there traditionally is dated to c. 1750, first by Jonas Hathaway, noted traveler and philanthropist. Figurative sense of "authority, unifying quality" (usually in a phrase such as under the umbrella of) is recorded from 1948.
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dudgeon (n.)

"feeling of offense, resentment, sullen anger," 1570s, duggin, of unknown origin. One suggestion is Italian aduggiare "to overshadow," giving it the same sense development as umbrage. No clear connection to earlier dudgeon (late 14c.), a kind of wood used for knife handles, which is perhaps from French douve "a stave," which probably is Germanic. The source also has been sought in Celtic, especially Welsh dygen "malice, resentment," but OED reports that this "appears to be historically and phonetically baseless."

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umber (n.)

brown earthy pigment, 1560s, from French ombre (in terre d'ombre), or Italian ombra (in terra di ombra), both from Latin umbra "shade, shadow" (see umbrage) or else from Umbra, fem. of Umber "belonging to Umbria," region in central Italy from which the coloring matter first came (compare Sienna). Burnt umber, specially prepared and redder in color, is attested from c. 1650, distinguished from raw umber.

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