Etymology
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ultimate (adj.)

1650s, from Late Latin ultimatus, past participle of ultimare "to be final, come to an end," from Latin ultimus (fem. ultima) "last, final, farthest, most distant, extreme," superlative of *ulter "beyond" (from suffixed form of PIE root *al- "beyond"). As a noun from 1680s. Ultimate Frisbee is attested by 1972.

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problem (n.)

late 14c., probleme, "a difficult question proposed for discussion or solution; a riddle; a scientific topic for investigation," from Old French problème (14c.) and directly from Latin problema, from Greek problēma "a task, that which is proposed, a question;" also "anything projecting, headland, promontory; fence, barrier;" also "a problem in geometry," literally "thing put forward," from proballein "propose," from pro "forward" (from PIE root *per- (1) "forward") + ballein "to throw" (from PIE root *gwele- "to throw, reach").

The meaning "a difficulty" is mid-15c. Mathematical sense of "proposition requiring some operation to be performed" is from 1560s in English. Problem child, one in which problems of a personal or social character are manifested, is recorded by 1916. Phrase _______ problem in reference to a persistent and seemingly insoluble difficulty is attested from at least 1882, in Jewish problem. Response no problem "that is acceptable; that can be done without difficulty" is recorded from 1968.

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brain-teaser (n.)

"difficult puzzle or problem," 1893, from brain (n.) + agent noun from tease (v.).

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agnosticism (n.)

"doctrines of the agnostics, the doctrine that ultimate causes and essential natures of things are unknowable or unknown," 1870, from agnostic + -ism.

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problematic (adj.)

c. 1600, "doubtful, questionable, uncertain, unsettled," from French problematique (15c.), from Late Latin problematicus, from Greek problēmatikos "pertaining to a problem," from problēmatos, genitive of problēma (see problem).

Specific sense in logic, differentiating what is possible from what is necessarily true, is from 1610s. The sense of "constituting, containing, or causing a difficulty" is modern, probably from a noun use in sociology (1957). Related: Problematical (1560s); problematically.

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headache (n.)

Old English heafodece; see head (n.) + ache (n.). Colloquial sense of "troublesome problem" is first recorded 1934. Related: Headachy (1705).

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drinking (n.)

late 12c., drinkinge, "the action of drinking," especially drinking for pleasure, verbal noun from drink (v.). Drinking problem "alcoholism" is by 1953; earlier was drinking habit (by 1825).

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solvitur ambulando 

an appeal to practical experience for a solution or proof, Latin, literally "(the problem) is solved by walking," originally in reference to the proof by Diogenes the Cynic of the possibility of motion.

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nitty-gritty (n.)

"basic facts of a situation or problem," by 1961, knitty-gritty, American English, said to have been chiefly used by black jazz musicians, perhaps ultimately from nit and grits "finely ground corn." As an adjective from 1966.

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mentalist (n.)

1782, "one devoted to mental pleasures," from mental + -ist. Originally in reference to artistic taste; philosophical sense "one who believes matter in ultimate analysis is a mode of mind or consciousness" (from mentalism) is from 1900. Related: Mentalistic.

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