1520s, of uncertain origin, perhaps an alteration of French tremouille "mill hopper," in reference to the hopper's constant motion to and fro, from Latin trimodia "vessel containing three modii," from modius, a Roman dry measure, related to modus "measure." Attested earlier in English as a verb (1510s), though this now is obsolete.
1650s as the name of a soothing drink, from lull (v.). Meaning "temporary period of quiet or rest amid turmoil or activity" is from 1815.
"violent muscular spasms, rapidly alternating contraction and relaxation of a muscle," 1817, from Modern Latin, from Greek klonos "turmoil, any violent motion; confusion, tumult, press of battle," a word of uncertain origin. Related: Clonicity.
early 15c., "disorderly, tumultuous, unruly" (of persons), from Old French turbulent (12c.), from Latin turbulentus "full of commotion, restless, disturbed, boisterous, stormy," figuratively "troubled, confused," from turba "turmoil, crowd" (see turbid). In reference to weather, from 1570s. Related: Turbulently.
late 14c., perturben, "disturb greatly, disturb mentally; cause disorder in," from Old French perturber "disturb, confuse" (14c.) and directly from Latin perturbare "to confuse, disorder, disturb," especially of states of the mind, from per "through" (from PIE root *per- (1) "forward," hence "through") + turbare "disturb, confuse," from turba "turmoil, crowd" (see turbid). Related: Perturbed; perturbing.
1838, "waterwheel driven by the impact or reaction of a flowing stream of water," from French turbine (19c.), from Latin turbinem (nominative turbo) "spinning top, eddy, whirlwind, that which whirls," related to turba "turmoil, crowd" (see turbid). Originally applied to a wheel spinning on a vertical axis driven by falling water, later of mechanisms driven by the flow of air. Turbo in reference to gas turbine engines is attested from 1904.
1580s, "a violent and involuntary contraction of the muscular parts of the body," from Latin convulsionem (nominative convulsio) "cramp, convulsion," noun of action from past-participle stem of convellere "to tear loose," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + vellere "to pluck, pull violently" (see svelte).
Meaning "any violent or irregular (social, political, etc.) motion, turmoil" is from 1640s. Of laughter, 1735. Related: Convulsions; convulsional.
c. 1200, "agitation of the mind, emotional turmoil," from Old French truble, torble "trouble, disturbance" (12c.), from trubler/torbler (see trouble (v.)). From early 15c. as "a concern, a cause for worry;" 1590s as "something that causes trouble." Meaning "unpleasant relations with the authorities" is from 1550s. Related: Troubles (1510s). Trouble and strife as rhyming slang for "wife" is recorded from 1908.
late 13c., "mental distress, emotional disorder of the mind, grief," from Old French destorbance (12c., Old North French distorbance), from destourber, from Latin disturbare "throw into disorder," from dis- "completely" (see dis-) + turbare "to disorder, disturb," from turba "turmoil" (see turbid).
Meaning "public disturbance, political agitation" is from c. 1300; that of "violent interruption of peace or unity" is late 14c.; it is the sense in disturbance of the (king's) peace," early 15c.
late 13c. distourben, "to frighten, alarm, break up the tranquility of;" c. 1300, "to stop or hinder;" from Old French destorber (Old North French distourber) and directly from Latin disturbare "throw into disorder," from dis- "completely" (see dis-) + turbare "to disorder, disturb," from turba "turmoil" (see turbid). Related: Disturbed; disturbing; disturbingly.
Middle English also had the verb as distourblen, from Old French destorbler; hence also distourbler (n.) "one who disturbs or incites" (late 14c.).