Etymology
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pancake (n.)

"flapjack, griddle-cake, thin cake of batter fried or baked in a pan," c. 1400, panne-cake (late 13c. as a surname), from pan (n.) + cake (n.); as symbol of flatness c. 1600 (Middle English had as plat a kake, early 15c.). Colloquial Pancake Tuesday for "Shrove Tuesday" (by 1777) is from the old custom of eating them then.

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shrove (n.)

"shrift, shriving," 1570s, used only in ecclesiastical phrases, shortened from Shrovetide (early 15c., Shrof-tide), "the three days before Ash Wednesday," a time of confession, from schrof-, which is related to schrifen (see shrive). Shrove Tuesday (c. 1500, earlier Shrof-dai, mid-15c.) is from practice of celebration and merrymaking before confession at the start of Lent.

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carnival (n.)
1540s, "time of merrymaking before Lent," from French carnaval, from Italian carnevale "Shrove Tuesday," from older Italian forms such as Milanese *carnelevale, Old Pisan carnelevare "to remove meat," literally "raising flesh," from Latin caro "flesh" (originally "a piece of flesh," from PIE root *sker- (1) "to cut") + levare "lighten, raise, remove" (from PIE root *legwh- "not heavy, having little weight").

Folk etymology is from Medieval Latin carne vale " 'flesh, farewell!' " From 1590s in figurative sense "feasting or revelry in general." Meaning "a circus or amusement fair" is attested by 1926 in American English.
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sesquicentennial (adj.)

"pertaining to a century and a half," 1875, from sesqui- + centennial (adj.). First in a notice of a "Sesqui-Centennial gathering" of descendants of Isaac and Ann Jackson, who settled in London Grove, Chester County, Pa., in 1725. As a noun, from 1880, first in reference to Baltimore's, probably short for sesquicentennial celebration, etc. 

Resolution to close the City Hall offices during the Sesqui-Centennial after 12 M on the 12th 13th 11th 15th and 16th of October [Journal of Proceedings of the First Branch City Council of Baltimore, Tuesday, Oct. 5, 1880]

The alternative noun sesquicentenary or sesqui-centenary is attested from 1896 (in reference to Princeton's).

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self-made (adj.)

1610s, "made by ones own actions or efforts," from self- + made. Self-made man is attested from 1826, American English; the notion is "having attained material success in life without extraneous advantages."

This expression, in the sense in which I here use it, is perhaps peculiar to our own country ; for it denotes a class of men to be found in no other part of the world. It is true, that in Europe there have been those, who, having a bent of the mind, or a genius, as it is called, for some particular employment, have by their own unassisted, persevering efforts, risen to eminence in their favorite pursuit. But the self-made men of our country differ much from these. Genius in them is sterling common senses ; and their object was not the gratification of the mind in some strong predilection for a favorite employment, but rather the attainment of those intellectual habits and resources, which might prepare them for usefulness, and give them influence and eminence among their fellow men. [Samuel P. Newman, "Address Delivered Before the Benevolent Society of Bowdoin College, Tuesday Evening, Sept. 5, 1826"]
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rogation (n.)

late 14c., rogacioun, in Church use, "a solemn supplication" (especially as said in a procession, a reference to Rogation days), from Old French rogacion and directly from Latin rogationem (nominative rogatio) "an asking, prayer, entreaty," also a specific term in Roman jurisprudence, noun of action from past-participle stem of rogare "to ask, inquire, question," also "to propose (a law, a candidate)," via the notion of "ask" the people; also especially "ask a favor, entreat, request." Apparently this is a figurative use of a PIE verb meaning literally "to stretch out (the hand)," from *rog-, variant of the root *reg- "move in a straight line." Related: Rogations.

Rogation days were the Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday before Ascension Day, a time for processions round fields blessing crops and praying for good harvest, also blessing the boundary markers of each parish. Discouraged by Protestants as superstition, they were continued or revived in modified form as beating the bounds.

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log-rolling (n.)

also logrolling, in the legislative vote-trading sense, "mutual aid given in carrying out several schemes or gaining individual ends," 1823, American English, from the notion of neighbors on the frontier joining forces for rolling logs into heaps after the trees have been felled to clear the land (as in phrase you roll my log and I'll roll yours); see log (n.1) + verbal noun from roll (v.). "Sometimes many neighbors were invited to assist, and a merrymaking followed. [Century Dictionary]. In lumbering, in reference to rolling logs into a stream where they bound together and floated down to the mills.

LOG-ROLLING. 1. In the lumber regions of Maine it is customary for men of different logging camps to appoint days for helping each other in rolling the logs to the river, after they are felled and trimmed — this rolling being about the hardest work incident to the business. Thus the men of three or four camps will unite, say on Monday, to roll for camp No. 1, — on Tuesday for camp No. 2, — on Wednesday for camp No. 3, — and so on, through the whole number of camps within convenient distance of each other. [Bartlett]

However the phrase is not attested in any literal sense, only the political sense, until 1848.

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day (n.)

Old English dæg "period during which the sun is above the horizon," also "lifetime, definite time of existence," from Proto-Germanic *dages- "day" (source also of Old Saxon, Middle Dutch, Dutch dag, Old Frisian di, dei, Old High German tag, German Tag, Old Norse dagr, Gothic dags), according to Watkins, from PIE root *agh- "a day."  He adds that the Germanic initial d- is "of obscure origin." But Boutkan says it is from PIE root *dhegh- "to burn" (see fever). Not considered to be related to Latin dies (which is from PIE root *dyeu- "to shine").

Meaning originally, in English, "the daylight hours;" it expanded to mean "the 24-hour period" in late Anglo-Saxon times. The day formerly began at sunset, hence Old English Wodnesniht was what we would call "Tuesday night." Names of the weekdays were not regularly capitalized in English until 17c.

From late 12c. as "a time period as distinguished from other time periods." Day-by-day "daily" is from late 14c.; all day "all the time" is from late 14c.  Day off "day away from work" is attested from 1883; day-tripper first recorded 1897. The days in nowadays, etc. is a relic of the Old English and Middle English use of the adverbial genitive.

All in a day's work "something unusual taken as routine" is by 1820. The nostalgic those were the days is attested by 1907. That'll be the day, expressing mild doubt following some boast or claim, is by 1941. To call it a day "stop working" is by 1919; earlier call it a half-day (1838). One of these days "at some day in the near future" is from late 15c. One of those days "a day of misfortune" is by 1936.

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merry (adj.)

Middle English mirie, from Old English myrge "pleasing, agreeable, pleasant, sweet, exciting feelings of enjoyment and gladness" (said of grass, trees, the world, music, song); also as an adverb, "pleasantly, melodiously," from Proto-Germanic *murgijaz, which probably originally meant "short-lasting," (compare Old High German murg "short," Gothic gamaurgjan "to shorten"), from PIE root *mregh-u- "short." The only exact cognate for meaning outside English was Middle Dutch mergelijc "joyful."

The connection to "pleasure" likely was via the notion of "making time fly, that which makes the time seem to pass quickly" (compare German Kurzweil "pastime," literally "a short time;" Old Norse skemta "to amuse, entertain, amuse oneself," from skamt, neuter of skammr "short"). There also was a verbal form in Old English, myrgan "be merry, rejoice." For vowel evolution, see bury (v.).

Not originally applied to humorous moods or speech or conduct, yet the word had a much wider senses in Middle English than modern: "pleasant-sounding" (of animal voices), "fine" (of weather), "handsome" (of dress), "pleasant-tasting" (of herbs). The evolution of the modern senses is probably via the meaning "pleased by a certain event or situation or state of things" (c. 1200). Of persons, "cheerful by disposition or nature; playfully cheerful, enlivened with gladness or good spirits," by mid-14c.

Merry-bout "an incident of sexual intercourse" was low slang from 1780. Merry-begot "illegitimate" (adj.), also "bastard" (n.) are in Grose (1785). Merrie England (now frequently satirical or ironic) is c. 1400, meri ingland, originally in a broader sense of "bountiful, prosperous." Merry Monday was a 16c. term for "the Monday before Shrove Tuesday" (Mardi Gras).

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