Etymology
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trumpet (n.)
late 14c., from Old French trompette "trumpet," diminutive of trompe (see trump (n.2)).
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trumpet (v.)
1520s, from trumpet (n.). Figurative sense of "to proclaim, extol" is attested from 1580s. Related: Trumpeted; trumpeting.
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trombone (n.)

brass wind instrument, 1724, from Italian trombone, augmentative form of tromba "trumpet," from a Germanic source (compare Old High German trumba "trumpet;" see trumpet (n.)). German Posaune "trombone" is from Old French buisine, from Latin buccina, bucina "a (crooked) trumpet."

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clarion (n.)

"small, high-pitched trumpet," early 14c., from Old French clarion "(high-pitched) trumpet, bugle" and directly from Medieval Latin clarionem (nominative clario) "a trumpet," from Latin clarus "clear" (see clear (adj.)). Clarion call in the figurative sense "call to battle" is attested from 1838 (clarion's call is from 1807).

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trump (n.2)
"trumpet," c. 1300, from Old French trompe "long, tube-like musical wind instrument" (12c.), cognate with Provençal tromba, Italian tromba, all probably from a Germanic source (compare Old High German trumpa, Old Norse trumba "trumpet"), of imitative origin.
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trunk (n.2)
"elephant's snout," 1560s, apparently from trunk (n.1), perhaps from confusion with trump (n.2), short for trumpet.
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tuba (n.)
1852 in reference to a modern, large, low-pitched brass musical instrument, from French tuba, from Latin tuba (plural tubae) "straight bronze war trumpet" (as opposed to the crooked bucina), related to tubus (see tube (n.)).
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Elizabethan (adj.)

"belonging to the period of Queen Elizabeth I" (1558-1603) of England, 1807 (Elizabethean); Coleridge (1817) has Elizabethian, and Carlyle (1840) finally attains the modern form. The noun is first attested 1859.

John Knox, one of the exiles for religion in Switzerland, publiſhed his "Firſt Blaſt of the Trumpet againſt the Government of Women," in this reign [of Elizabeth]. It was lucky for him that he was out of the queen's reach when he ſounded the trumpet. [The Rev. Mr. James Granger, "A Biographical History of England," 1769]
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bazooka (n.)
"metal tube rocket launcher," 1942, from name of a junkyard musical instrument used (c. 1935) as a prop by U.S. comedian Bob Burns (1896-1956); the word is an extension of bazoo, a slang term for "mouth" or "boastful talk" (1877), which is probably from Dutch bazuin "trumpet."
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codeine (n.)

"white crystalline alkaloid present in opium," 1838, codeina, from French codéine, coined, with chemical suffix -ine (2), from Greek kodeia "poppy head," related to koos "prison," literally "hollow place;" kodon "bell, mouth of a trumpet;" koilos "hollow, hollowed out, spacious, deep," all from PIE root *keue- "to swell," also "vault, hole." Modern form is from 1881.

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