Etymology
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translation (n.)

mid-14c., "removal of a saint's body or relics to a new place," also "rendering of a text from one language to another," from Old French translacion "translation" of text, also of the bones of a saint, etc. (12c.) or directly from Latin translationem (nominative translatio) "a carrying across, removal, transporting; transfer of meaning," noun of action from past-participle stem of transferre "bear across, carry over; copy, translate" (see transfer (v.)).

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Fortran (n.)
computer programming language, 1956, from combination of elements from formula + translation.
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mistranslation (n.)

"an erroneous translation," 1690s, from mis- (1) + translation.

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loan-translation (n.)
"process by which a word or phrase is translated literally from another language, keeping its original connotation," 1931, from German Lehnübersetzung (by 1905), properly "lend-translation," from lehnen "lend" (see lend (v.)). An earlier word for it was calque.
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lustgarden (n.)
1580s, translation or partial translation of German Lust-garten, Dutch lustgaard "pleasure garden;" see lust (n.) + garden (n.).
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isness (n.)
"essence," 1865, in a translation of Hegel, from is + -ness.
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final solution (n.)
1947, translation of German Endlösung, name given to Nazi Jewish policy from 1941.
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foreskin (n.)
1530s, from fore- + skin (n.). A loan-translation of Latin prepuce.
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graywacke (n.)
also greywacke, 1806, partial translation of German grauwacke; see gray (adj.) + wacke.
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Erl-king (n.)
1797, in Scott's translation of Goethe, from German Erl-könig, fiend who haunts the depths of forests in German and Scandinavian poetic mythology, literally "alder-king;" according to OED, Herder's erroneous translation of Danish ellerkonge "king of the elves." Compare German Eller, Erle "alder" (see alder).
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