Etymology
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toad (n.)
c. 1300, from late Old English tadige, tadie, of unknown origin and according to OED with no known cognates outside English. Applied to loathsome persons from 1560s. Toad-strangler "heavy rain" is from 1919, U.S. Southern dialectal.
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hop-toad (n.)
also hoptoad, 1827, American English, from hop (v.) + toad.
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tadpole (n.)

mid-15c., from tadde "toad" (see toad) + pol "head" (see poll (n.)). Also pol-head (mid 13c.).

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toadstool (n.)
late 14c., apparently just what it looks like: a fanciful name from Middle English tadde "toad" (see toad) + stole "stool" (see stool). Toads themselves were regarded as highly poisonous, and this word is "popularly restricted to poisonous or inedible fungi, as distinct from edible "mushrooms" [OED]. Compare toad-cheese, a poisonous fungi; toad's meat (1886), a "rustic" term for toadstool.
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toadstone (n.)

"stone or stone-like object, supposedly magical (with healing or protective power) and found in the heads of certain toads," 1550s, from toad + stone (n.). Translating Greek batrakhites, Medieval Latin bufonites; compare also French crapaudine (13c.), German krötenstein.

The Crapadine or Toadstone, we speak of before, you shall prove to be a true one, if the Toad lift himself so up against it, when it is shew'd or held to him, as if he would come at it, and leap to catch it away: he doth so much envy that Man should have that stone. ["Eighteen Books of the Secrets of Art & Nature," 1661]
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toady (n.)
"servile parasite," 1826, apparently shortened from toad-eater "fawning flatterer" (1742), originally (1620s) "the assistant of a charlatan," who ate a toad (believed to be poisonous) to enable his master to display his skill in expelling the poison. The verb is recorded from 1827. Related: Toadied; toadying.
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Bufo (n.)
toad genus, from Latin bufo "a toad," an Osco-Umbrian loan-word, perhaps from PIE *gwebh-, a root denoting sliminess and also forming words for "frog" (source also of Old Prussian gabawo "toad," Old Church Slavonic žaba "frog," Middle Low German kwappe "tadpole," German Quappe).
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paddock (n.1)

"a toad, a frog," late 14c., paddok (late 12c. as a surname), probably a diminutive of pad "toad," from Old Norse padda; from Proto-Germanic *pado- "toad" (source also of Swedish padda, Danish padde, Old Frisian and Middle Dutch padde "frog, toad," also Dutch schildpad "tortoise"), of unknown origin and with no certain cognates outside Germanic. Paddock-stool was an old name for a toadstool (mid-15c.). Pad in the straw was a 16c.-17c. expression meaning "something wrong, hidden danger."

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Paedophryne (n.)

frog genus, 2010, literally "child toad," from Greek paedo- "child" (see pedo-) + phrynē typically "toad," but occasionally "frog" (the usual Greek for "frog" was batrakhos), which is perhaps from PIE root *bher- (2) "bright; brown," or else from a local pre-Greek word. It includes Paedophryne amauensis, which was formally named 2012 and is considered the world's smallest vertebrate. The amauensis is from Amau village in Papua New Guinea, near which it was first found.

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knee-high (adj.)
1743, from knee (n.) + high (adj.). Phrase knee-high to a grasshopper first recorded 1851 (earliest form was knee-high to a toad, 1814).
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