Etymology
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thousand (adj., n.)

"10 times one hundred; the number which is ten times one hundred; a symbol representing this number;" Old English þusend, from Proto-Germanic *thusundi (source also of Old Frisian thusend, Dutch duizend, Old High German dusunt, German tausend, Old Norse þusund, Gothic þusundi).

Related to words in Balto-Slavic (Lithuanian tūkstantis, Old Church Slavonic tysashta, Polish tysiąc, Russian tysiacha, Czech tisic), and probably ultimately a compound with indefinite meaning "great multitude, several hundred," literally "swollen-hundred," with first element from PIE root *teue- "to swell," second element from PIE root *dekm- "ten."

Used to translate Greek khilias, Latin mille, hence the refinement into the precise modern meaning. There was no general Indo-European word for "thousand." Slang shortening thou first recorded 1867. Thousand island dressing (1916) presumably is named for the region of New York on the St. Lawrence River.

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millenary (adj.)

"consisting of or containing a thousand," 1570s, from Late Latin millenarius "containing a thousand," from millenia "a thousand each," from Latin mille "thousand" (see million). As a noun, 1560s as "a believer in the (Christian) millennium;" by 1897 as "thousandth anniversary."

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banzai (interj.)
Japanese war-cry, 1893, literally "(may you live) ten thousand years," originally a greeting addressed to the emperor, from ban "ten thousand" + sai "year."
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million (n.)

"ten hundred thousand, a thousand thousands," late 14c., milioun, from Old French million (late 13c.), from Italian millione (now milione), literally "a great thousand," augmentative of mille "thousand," from Latin mille, which is of uncertain origin. From the start often used indefinitely for "a very great number or quantity."

In the West it was used mainly by mathematicians until 16c., but India, with its love of large numbers, had names before 3c. for numbers well beyond a billion. The ancient Greeks had no name for a number greater than ten thousand, the Romans for none higher than a hundred thousand. "A million" in Latin would have been decies centena milia, literally "ten hundred thousand." Million to one as a type of "long odds" is attested from 1761. Related: Millions.

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chiliad (n.)

"group of 1,000" (of the same sort), 1590s; "period of a thousand years" (1660s), from Latinized form of Greek khiliados, from khilioi "a thousand; the number 1,000" (see chiliasm). Related: Chiliadal, chiliadic.

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millenarian (n.)

1670s, "one who believes in the coming of the (Christian) millennium" (by 1550s in Latin plural form millenarii), from Latin millenarius "containing a thousand," from millenia "a thousand each," from mille "thousand" (see million). With -ian. As an adjective, "pertaining to the (Christian) millennium," from 1630s.

The apparent inconsistency in spelling (-n-, -nn-) results from the fact that millenarian, like millenary, does not contain the stem of the Latin annus year, which is present in millennium .... [Fowler]
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milfoil (n.)

"yarrow," a composite herb, mid-13c., from Old French milfoil, from Latin millefolium, literally "thousand leaf," so called from the abundance of its leaves; from mille "thousand" (see million) + folium "leaf" (from PIE root *bhel- (3) "to thrive, bloom").

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grand (n.)
"thousand dollars," 1915, American English underworld slang, from grand (adj.).
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mil (n.)

1721, in per mil "per thousand," from Latin mille "thousand" (see million); compare percent. As a unit of length for diameter of wire (equal to .001 of an inch) it is attested from 1891; as a unit of angular measure it is recorded by 1907.

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