Etymology
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there (adv., conj.)
Old English þær "in or at that place, so far as, provided that, in that respect," from Proto-Germanic *thær (source also of Old Saxon thar, Old Frisian ther, Middle Low German dar, Middle Dutch daer, Dutch daar, Old High German dar, German da, Gothic þar, Old Norse þar), from PIE *tar- "there" (source also of Sanskrit tar-hi "then"), from root *to- (see the) + adverbial suffix -r.

Interjectional use is recorded from 1530s, used variously to emphasize certainty, encouragement, or consolation. To have been there "had previous experience of some activity" is recorded from 1877.
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therefrom (adv.)
mid-13c., there from. One word from 17c.; see there + from.
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therefor (adv.)
"for this, for that," Middle English variant spelling of therefore (q.v.); in modern use perhaps perceived as there + for.
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thereof (adv.)
"of that, of it," Old English þærof; see there + of. Similar formation in Swedish, Danish deraf.
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thereon (adv.)
Old English þæron; see there + on. Similar formation in German daran.
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thar 
now representing dialectal pronunciation of there; in literary use in Middle English.
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thereunder (adv.)
Old English þærunder; see there + under. Similar formation in Old Frisian therunder, German darunter.
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therein (adv.)
"in that place, time, or thing," Old English þærin; see there + in. Similar formation in German darin.
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thereafter (adv.)
Old English þær æfter; see there + after. Similar formation in Dutch daarachter, Swedish derefter.
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