c. 1200, "act of enticing someone to sin," also "an experience or state of being tempted," from Old French temptacion (12c., Modern French tentation), from Latin temptationem (nominative temptatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of temptare "to feel, try out" (see tempt). Meaning "that which tempts a person (to sin)" is from c. 1500.
early 15c., "fighting, engaged in warfare," from Old French militant "fighting" and directly from Latin militantem (nominative militans), present participle of militare "serve as a soldier" (see militate). The sense of "having a combative character or tendency," especially "seeking political change by use or advocacy of direct action," is by 1907. Related: Militantly.
Originally especially in Church militant (early 15c., chirche militans), which is the Church on earth, seen as engaged in warfare with the devil, the flesh, and worldly powers of temptation and unrighteousness. The Church triumphant (1550s) is the collective body of saints now glorified in heaven.
"cover or shield from danger, harm, damage, exposure, trespass, temptation, insult, etc.," early 15c., protecten, from Latin protectus, past participle of protegere "to protect, defend, cover over, cover in front" (source also of French protéger, Old French protecter, Spanish proteger). This is from pro "before" (from PIE root *per- (1) "forward," hence "in front of, before") + tegere "to cover" (from PIE root *(s)teg- "to cover").
Applied with a wide range, both literal and figurative. The sense in political economy, "guard or strengthen against foreign competition by means of tariffs, etc.," is by 1789. Related: Protected; protecting.
Old English ofercuman "to reach, overtake, move or pass over," also "to conquer, prevail over, defeat in combat" (the Devil, evil spirits, sin, temptation, etc.), from ofer (see over) + cuman "to come" (see come (v.)). A common Germanic compound (Middle Dutch overkomen, Old High German ubarqueman, German überkommen).
In reference to mental or chemical force, "to overwhelm, render helpless," it is in late Old English. Meaning "to surmount (a difficulty or obstacle); succeed, be successful" is from c. 1200. The Civil Rights anthem "We Shall Overcome" was put together c. 1950s from the lyrics of Charles Tindley's spiritual "I'll Overcome Some Day" (1901) and the melody from the pre-Civil War spiritual "No More Auction Block for Me." Related: Overcame; overcoming.
late 14c., moralite, "moral qualities, virtuous conduct or thought," from Old French moralite (Modern French moralité) "moral (of a story); moral instruction; morals, moral character" (13c.) and directly from Late Latin moralitatem (nominative moralitas) "manner, character," from Latin moralis "of manners or morals; moral" (see moral (adj.)). Meaning "doctrine or system of ethical duties" is from mid-15c. Meaning "goodness, characteristic of being moral, virtuousness" is attested from 1590s.
Where there is no free agency, there can be no morality. Where there is no temptation, there can be little claim to virtue. Where the routine is rigorously proscribed by law, the law, and not the man, must have the credit of the conduct. [William H. Prescott, "History of the Conquest of Peru," 1847]
c. 1200, remedie, "means of counteracting sin or evil of any kind; cure for a vice or temptation;" late 14c., "a cure for a disease or disorder, medicine or process which restores health;" from Anglo-French remedie, Old French remede "remedy, cure" (12c., Modern French remède) and directly from Latin remedium "a cure, remedy, medicine, antidote, that which restores health," from re-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (or perhaps literally, "again;" see re-), + mederi "to heal" (from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures").
Figurative use is from c. 1300. The meaning "legal redress; means for obtaining justice, redress, or compensation through a court" is by mid-15c.