Etymology
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teacher (n.)
"one who teaches," c. 1300; agent noun from teach (v.). It was used earlier in a sense of "index finger" (late 13c.). Teacher's pet attested from 1856.
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school-teacher (n.)

"one who gives regular instruction in schools," by 1839, from school (n.1) + teacher.

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student (n.)

late 14c., from Old French estudiant "student, scholar, one who is studying" (Modern French étudiant), noun use of past participle of estudiier, from Medieval Latin studiare "to study," from Latin studium (see study (v.)). An Old English word for it was leorningcild "student, disciple."

Student-teacher in reference to a teacher in training working in a classroom under the supervision of a head teacher is from 1851, American English (pupil-teacher in the same sense is by 1838).

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pedagogue (n.)

late 14c., pedagoge, "schoolmaster, teacher of children," from Old French pedagoge "teacher of children" (14c.), from Latin paedagogus, from Greek paidagōgos "slave who escorts boys to school and generally supervises them," later "a teacher or trainer of boys," from pais (genitive paidos) "child" (see pedo-) + agōgos "leader," from agein "to lead" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move").

"[N]ow used, generally with a sense of contempt, for a dogmatic and narrow-minded teacher" [Century Dictionary, 1895]; the hostile implications in the word are from at least the time of Pepys (1650s). Related: Pedagogal.

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rhetor (n.)

late 14c., rethor, "master or teacher of rhetoric," also "an ancient Greek orator," from Old French retor (Modern French rhéteur), from Latin rhetor (in Medieval Latin also rethor), from Greek rhētōr "speaker, master speaker, orator; artist of discourse; teacher of rhetoric" (see rhetoric (n.)). 

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moralist (n.)

1620s, "moral person;" 1630s, "teacher of morals;" from moral (adj.) + -ist.

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pedagogical (adj.)

"pedagogic, of or pertaining to a teacher of children," 1610s, from Latin paedagogicus (see pedagogic) + -al (1). Related: Pedagogically.

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Pilates 
c. 1980, physical fitness regimen developed c. 1920 by German-born physical fitness teacher Joseph Pilates (1883-1967).
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Rubik's Cube (n.)

1980, named for teacher Ernö Rubik (born 1944) who patented it in Hungary in 1975.

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preceptor (n.)

early 15c., preceptour, "tutor, instructor, teacher" (the earliest reference might be to "expert in the art of prose composition"), from Latin praeceptor "teacher, instructor," agent noun from praecipere (see precept). Medical sense of "physician who gives students practical training" is attested by 1803. Related: Preceptorial.

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