An Old English word for this was freonama, literally "free name." Meaning "family name" is first found late 14c. Hereditary surnames existed among Norman nobility in England in early 12c., among the common people they began to be used 13c., increasingly frequent until near universal by end of 14c. The process was later in the north of England than the south. The verb is attested from 1510s. Related: Surnamed.
surname, c. 1300, in some uses it represents an Englishing of Cologne, the city in Germany. As a surname it can be this or from Cullen, Banffshire.
"one who grinds grain in a mill," mid-14c. (as a surname by early 14c.), agent noun from mill (v.1). In Middle English both with and without the -n-. The Old English word was mylnweard, literally "mill-keeper" (preserved in surname Millward, which is attested from late 13c.).