c. 1300, sirgirie, "medical treatment of an operative nature, such as cutting-operations, setting of fractures, etc.," from Old French surgerie, surgeure, contraction of serurgerie, from Late Latin chirurgia "surgery," from Greek kheirourgia, from kheirourgos "working or done by hand," from kheir "hand" (from PIE root *ghes- "the hand") + ergon "work" (from PIE root *werg- "to do").
According to OED, the British sense of "session at which a Member of Parliament (or other public servant) is available locally to be consulted by constituents" is by 1951, from an extended sense in medical practice of "regular session at which a doctor receives patients for consultation" in a room or den set aside for that purpose called a surgery (by 1846). The word has been extended in Britain to other free consultations for advice.
"the branch of surgery concerned with the replacement of missing or defective parts of the body," 1894, from prosthetic; also see -ics.
c. 1300, sorgien, cirurgian "person who heals by manual operation on the patient," from Anglo-French surgien (13c.), from Old French surgien, cirurgien (13c.), from cirurgie "surgery," from Latin chirurgia "surgery," from Greek kheirourgia, from kheirourgos "working or done by hand," from kheir "hand" (from PIE root *ghes- "the hand") + ergon "work" (from PIE root *werg- "to do").
1590s, in surgery and medicine, "instrument for rendering a part accessible to observation," from Latin speculum "reflector, looking-glass, mirror" (also "a copy, an imitation"), from specere "to look at, view" (from PIE root *spek- "to observe"). As a type of telescope attachment from 1704.
1640s, "pertaining to beauty, improving beauty," from French cosmétique (16c.), from Latinized form of Greek kosmetikos "skilled in adornment or arrangement," from kosmein "to arrange, adorn," from kosmos "order; ornament" (see cosmos). Related: Cosmetical (1550s). Of surgery, from 1926. Figurative sense of "superficial, affecting the appearance only" is from 1955. Related: Cosmetically.