Etymology
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surgery (n.)

c. 1300, sirgirie, "medical treatment of an operative nature, such as cutting-operations, setting of fractures, etc.," from Old French surgerie, surgeure, contraction of serurgerie, from Late Latin chirurgia "surgery," from Greek kheirourgia, from kheirourgos "working or done by hand," from kheir "hand" (from PIE root *ghes- "the hand") + ergon "work" (from PIE root *werg- "to do").

According to OED, the British sense of "session at which a Member of Parliament (or other public servant) is available locally to be consulted by constituents" is by 1951, from an extended sense in medical practice of "regular session at which a doctor receives patients for consultation" in a room or den set aside for that purpose called a surgery (by 1846). The word has been extended in Britain to other free consultations for advice.

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microsurgery (n.)

"surgery so delicate as to require the use of a microscope," 1912, from micro- + surgery. Related: Microsurgical.

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surgical (adj.)

1770, earlier chirurgical (early 15c.), from surgery + -ical. Related: Surgically.

surgical strike: There is no such thing. Don't use unless in a quote, then question what that means. [Isaac Cubillos, "Military Reporters Stylebook and Reference Guide," 2010]
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*ghes- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "the hand." 

It forms all or part of: chiral; chiro-; chirognomy; chirography; chirology; chiromancy; chiropodist; chiropractic; chiropractor; chirosophy; chirurgeon; enchiridion; surgeon; surgery; surgical.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek kheir, Hittite keshshar, Armenian jern "the hand" 

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*werg- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to do."

It forms all or part of: allergic; allergy; argon; boulevard; bulwark; cholinergic; demiurge; dramaturge; energy; erg (n.1) "unit of energy;" ergative; ergonomics; ergophobia; George; georgic; handiwork; irk; lethargic; lethargy; liturgy; metallurgy; organ; organelle; organic; organism; organize; orgy; surgeon; surgery; synergism; synergy; thaumaturge; work; wright; wrought; zymurgy.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek ergon "work," orgia "religious performances;" Armenian gorc "work;" Avestan vareza "work, activity;" Gothic waurkjan, Old English wyrcan "to work," Old English weorc "deed, action, something done;" Old Norse yrka "work, take effect."
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rhinoplasty (n.)

"plastic surgery of the nose," 1828, from rhino- "nose" + -plasty. Related: rhinoplastic (1823).

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prosthetics (n.)

"the branch of surgery concerned with the replacement of missing or defective parts of the body," 1894, from prosthetic; also see -ics.

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neurosurgeon (n.)

also neuro-surgeon, "one who does surgery on the nervous system," especially the brain and spinal cord, 1918, from neuro- + surgeon. Related: Neurosurgery; neurosurgical.

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surgeon (n.)

c. 1300, sorgien, cirurgian "person who heals by manual operation on the patient," from Anglo-French surgien (13c.), from Old French surgien, cirurgien (13c.), from cirurgie "surgery," from Latin chirurgia "surgery," from Greek kheirourgia, from kheirourgos "working or done by hand," from kheir "hand" (from PIE root *ghes- "the hand") + ergon "work" (from PIE root *werg- "to do").

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deligation (n.)

in surgery, "a binding up," 1660s, noun of action from stem of Latin deligare "to bind fast," from de- (see de-) + ligare "to bind" (from PIE root *leig- "to tie, bind").

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