Etymology
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surge (n.)

late 15c., "fountain, stream," of uncertain origin, probably from French sourge-, stem of sourdre "to rise, swell," from Latin surgere "to rise, arise, get up, mount up, ascend; attack," contraction of surrigere, from assimilated form of sub "up from below" (see sub-) + regere "to keep straight, guide" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule"). Meaning "high, rolling swell of water" is from 1520s; figurative sense of "excited rising up" (as of feelings) is from 1510s.

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surge (v.)

1510s, "to rise and fall," from surge (n.), or from French surgir "rise, ride (as a ship does a wave), spring up, arrive." Meaning "rise high and roll forcefully" is from 1560s. Related: Surged; surging.

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surgent (adj.)
"rising in waves," 1590s, from Latin surgentem (nominative surgens) "rising," present participle of surgere "to rise" (see surge (n.)). In psychology from 1933.
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sord (n.)
"flock of mallards," 15c., perhaps from sord (v.) "to take flight," from Old French sordre "arise, stand up," from Latin surgere "to rise" (see surge (n.)).
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resurgent (adj.)

"that rises again," 1804, specifically "revivification of animals," in a translation of Spallanzani's Italian, from Latin resurgere "rise again, lift oneself, be restored," from re- "again" (see re-) + surgere "to rise" (see surge). There was verb resurge "to rise again" (1570s), but it became obsolete.

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sortie (n.)
"attack of the besieged upon the besiegers," 1778, from French sortie (16c.), literally "a going out," noun use of fem. past participle of sortir "go out," from Vulgar Latin *surctire, from Latin surrectus, past participle of surgere "rise up" (see surge (n.)).
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resurge (v.)

surge back again, rise again," "1887 in modern use, from re- "again" + surge (v.), or else a back-formation from resurgent. The verb also was in use in 17c., from Latin resurgere, but it became obsolete by 19c. unless in poetry. An older verb form was resourd (mid-15c.). Related: Resurged; resurging.

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insurgent (n.)
"one who rises in revolt" against a government or its laws, 1745, from Latin insurgentem (nominative insurgens), present participle of insurgere "rise up, lift oneself; rise against; stand high, gather force," from in- "against," or here perhaps merely intensive, + surgere "to rise" (see surge (n.)).

An obsolete verb insurge (from French insurger) "to rise in opposition or insurrection" was common 16c. For verb forms 19c. writers sometimes turned to insurrectionize or insurrect.
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*upo 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "under," also "up from under," hence "over."

It forms all or part of: above; assume; Aufklarung; eave; eavesdropper; hyphen; hypo-; hypochondria; hypocrisy; hypotenuse; hypothalamus; hypothesis; hypsi-; hypso-; opal; open; oft; often; resuscitate; somber; souffle; source; soutane; souvenir; sub-; subject; sublime; subpoena; substance; subterfuge; subtle; suburb; succeed; succinct; succor; succubus; succumb; sudden; suffer; sufficient; suffix; suffrage; suggestion; summon; supine; supple; supply; support; suppose; surge; suspect; suspend; sustain; up; up-; Upanishad; uproar; valet; varlet; vassal.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit upa "near, under, up to, on," Greek hypo "under," Latin sub "under, below," Gothic iup, Old Norse, Old English upp "up, upward," Hittite up-zi "rises."

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