Etymology
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cop out 

by 1942, noun ("a cowardly escape, an evasion") and verb ("sneak off, escape, give up without trying"), American English slang, perhaps from cop a plea (c. 1925) "plead guilty to lesser charges," which is probably from northern British slang cop "to catch" (a scolding, etc.); as in cop a feel "grope someone" (1930s); see cop (v.). Sense of "evade an issue or problem" is from 1960s.

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hang out (v.)
c. 1400, intransitive (as of the tongue, from the mouth); transitive use by 1560s; see hang (v.) + out (adv.). Colloquial meaning "to be found" is recorded from 1811, "in allusion to the custom of hanging out a sign or 'shingle' to indicate one's shop and business" [Century Dictionary]. As a noun (often hangout) "residence, lodging" attested from 1893; earlier "a feast" (1852, American English).
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go out (v.)
early 13c., "leave home," from go (v.) + out (adv.). Meaning "become extinct, expire" is from c. 1400.
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make out (v.)

c. 1600, "get along, succeed," from make (v.) + out (adv.). Sense of "obtain a clear understanding of" is from 1640s; that of "discern or discover visually" is by 1754; sense of "have sexual relations with" is attested by 1939.

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pass out (v.)

"lose consciousness," 1915, from pass (v.) + out. Probably a weakened sense from earlier meaning "to die" (1899). Meaning "to distribute" is attested from 1926. Related: Passed out.

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hors de combat (adv.)
1757, French, literally "out of combat." Hors (prep.) "out, beyond," is from Latin foris (adv.) "outside," literally "out of doors" (see foreign). De is from Latin de "of." For combat see combat (n.). A similar expression from French is hors concours "out of competition" (1884), of a work of art in an exhibition.
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ex nihilo 
Latin, literally "out of nothing," from ex "out of" (see ex-) + nihilo, ablative of nihil "nothing" (see nil).
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ex officio 
Latin, "in discharge of one's duties," literally "out of duty," from ex "out of" (see ex-) + officio, ablative of officium "duty" (see office).
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ex libris 
Latin, literally "out of the books (of)," from ex "out of" (see ex-) + ablative plural of liber "book" (see library). Hence, ex-librist (1880).
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ex cathedra 
Latin, literally "from the (teacher's) chair," from ex "out of" (see ex-) + cathedra (see cathedral).
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