Etymology
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stout (adj.)

c. 1300, "proud, valiant, strong," from Old French estout "brave, fierce, proud," earlier estolt "strong," from a Germanic source from West Germanic *stult- "proud, stately, strutting" (source also of Middle Low German stolt "stately, proud," German stolz "proud, haughty, arrogant, stately"), from PIE root *stel- "to put, stand, put in order," with derivatives referring to a standing object or place.

Meaning "strong in body, powerfully built" is attested from late 14c., but has been displaced by the (often euphemistic) meaning "thick-bodied, fat and large, bulky in figure," which is first recorded 1804. Original sense preserved in figurative phrase stout-hearted (1550s). Related: Stoutly; stoutness.

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stout (n.)
1670s, "strong beer or ale," from stout (adj.). Later especially, and now usually, "porter of extra strength" (by 1762).
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big-boned (adj.)
"stout," 1580s, now often considered euphemistic.
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snips (n.)
"small, stout-handled shears for metal-working," 1846, from snip (v.).
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dumpy (adj.)

"short and stout," 1750, apparently from some noun sense of dump (compare dumpling), but the connection is unclear.

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hadrosaur (n.)
1865, from Modern Latin hadrosaurus (1859), from Greek hadros "thick, stout" (see hadron) + -saurus.
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roly-poly (adj.)

"short and stout," 1820, probably a varied reduplication of roll (v.). As a noun, it was used as the name of various bowling ball games from 1713, and it was used as early as 1610s in the sense of "rascal." As an appellation of a short, stout person, by 1836.

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chunky (adj.)

"thickset, disproportionately stout," 1751, from chunk (n.) + -y (2). Originally U.S. colloquial. Related: Chunkiness.

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corpulent (adj.)

"fleshy, portly, stout," late 14c., from Old French corpulent "stout, fat," from Latin corpulentus "fleshy, fat," from corpus "body" (from PIE root *kwrep- "body, form, appearance") + -ulentus "full of." Leigh Hunt was sent to prison for two years for calling the Prince Regent corpulent in print in 1812.

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bulky (adj.)
mid-15c., "plump, stout, of great size," from bulk (n.) + -y (2). Often with a suggestion of "unwieldy, clumsy." Related: Bulkiness.
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