Etymology
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Stars and Stripes (n.)
"American flag," attested from 1782. Stars and Bars as a name for the Confederate flag is attested from 1863.
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stellate (adj.)
c. 1500, "starry, star-spangled," from Latin stellatus "covered with stars," past participle of stellare "to set with stars," from stella "star" (*ster- (2) "star"). Meaning "star-shaped" is recorded from 1660s.
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instellation (n.)
"a putting among the stars," 1795, from in- (2) "in" + noun of action from Latin stellare "to set with stars," from stella (from PIE root *ster- (2) "star"). Perhaps modeled on earlier French instellation.
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asterism (n.)
1590s, "a constellation, a group of stars," from Greek asterismos "a marking with stars," from aster "star" (from PIE root *ster- (2) "star"). Originally any grouping of stars, whether a constellation or not; in modern use usually the latter. The "Big Dipper" is an asterism; Ursa Major is the constellation which contains it. Other examples are the "Summer Triangle," "the sickle" of Leo, "the teapot" of Sagittarius.
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astrography (n.)
"the mapping of the fixed stars," 1740, from astro- + -graphy. Related: Astrographic.
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sub-giant (n.)
also subgiant, in astronomy, of stars, 1937, from sub- + giant (n.).
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inerrant (adj.)
1650s, in reference to "fixed" stars (as opposed to "wandering" planets), from Latin inerrantem (nominative inerrans) "not wandering, fixed (of stars)," from in- "not, opposite of" (see in- (1)) + errans, present participle of errare "to wander, stray, roam, rove" (see err). Meaning "unerring, free from error" is from 1785.
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astrophotography (n.)
"application of photography to the stars, sun, planets, etc.," 1858, from astro- + photography.
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thermonuclear (adj.)
1938 with reference to stars, 1953 of weapons (technically only to describe the hydrogen bomb), from thermo- + nuclear.
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sidereal (adj.)

also siderial, 1630s, "star-like;" 1640s, "of or pertaining to the stars," earlier sideral (1590s), from French sidereal (16c.), from Latin sidereus "starry, astral, of the constellations," from sidus (genitive sideris) "star, group of stars, constellation," which is of uncertain origin, perhaps from PIE root *sweid- "to shine" (source also of Lithuanian svidus "shining, bright").

Sidereal time is measured by the apparent diurnal motion of the fixed stars. The sidereal day begins and ends with the passage of the vernal equinox over the meridian and is about four minutes shorter than the solar day, measured by the passage of the sun over the meridian.

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