Etymology
Advertisement
star-spangled (adj.)

1590s, from star (n.) + spangle (v.); Star-Spangled Banner "United States flag" is 1814, from Francis Scott Key's poem (printed in the "Baltimore Patriot" Sept. 20), in reference to the bombardment of Fort McHenry in Baltimore overnight Sept. 13-14.

The Stars and Stripes developed from the striped flag of Boston's Sons of Liberty, and the blue and white star-spangled standards of George Washington's army. It involved the advice of a Quaker seamstress, the prompting of an American Indian, the timely intervention by Pennsylvania politicians, the inspiration of Francis Hopkinson, and a resolution of the Continental Congress.
These Americans were part of a process of mixed enterprise that combined public effort and private initiative in a way that was typical of the new republic. An American Indian was not reluctant to instruct the rulers of the Colonies on what should be done, and they were quick to respond to his suggestion. A Philadelphia seamstress did not hesitate to criticize the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and he was open to her advice. The Continental Congress accepted these contributions in the spirit of the open society that America was becoming. [David Hackett Fischer, "Liberty and Freedom"]
Related entries & more 
Advertisement
spangle (v.)
1540s, "cover with spangles," from spangle (n.). Intransitive meaning "glitter, glisten" is from 1630s. Related: Spangled; spangling.
Related entries & more 
stellate (adj.)
c. 1500, "starry, star-spangled," from Latin stellatus "covered with stars," past participle of stellare "to set with stars," from stella "star" (*ster- (2) "star"). Meaning "star-shaped" is recorded from 1660s.
Related entries & more 
Anacreontic (adj.)

"of or in the manner of Anacreon," the "convivial bard of Greece," celebrated lyrical poet (560-478 B.C.E.), born at Teos in Ionia. Also in reference to his lyric form (1706) of a four-line stanza, rhymed alternately, each line with four beats (three trochees and a long syllable), also "convivial and amatory" (1801); and "an erotic poem celebrating love and wine" (1650s).

The name is literally "Up-lord," from ana "up" (see ana-) + kreon "lord, master," which Beekes calls "an inherited word from Indo-European poetic language," from PIE *kreih- "splendor," and he compares Sanskrit sri- "magnificence, riches, splendor, fame."

U.S. lawyer and writer Francis Scott Key (1779-1843) in 1814 set or wrote his poem "The Star-Spangled Banner" to the melody of the drinking song of the popular London gentleman's club called The Anacreontic Society, dedicated to "wit, harmony, and the god of wine." The tune is late 18c. and may be the work of society member and court musician John Stafford Smith (1750-1836).

Related entries & more 
noctilucent (adj.)

"shining by night," as the eyes of a cat, glow-worms, decaying wood, or certain high clouds seen in northern latitudes, 1812, from Latin noct-, stem of nox "night" (see noct-) + lucentem (nominative lucens), present participle of lucere "to shine, glow, be bright," from PIE root *leuk- "light, brightness." The word was originally used of tiny sea creatures, by contemporary observers reported to be nereids, but that identification is now considered doubtful.

These are the animals that illuminate the sea, like glow-worms, but with brighter splendor. I have at night, in rowing, seen the whole element as if on fire round me; every oar spangled with them; and the water burnt with more than ordinary brightness. I have taken up some of the water in a bucket, seen them for a short space illuminate it; but when I came to search for them their extreme smallness eluded my examination. [Thomas Pennant, "British Zoology," London, 1812]

Also noctilucous (1774). Noctilucid is rarely used, but could be valuable if it meant "only making sense at night." Related: Noctilucence.

Related entries & more 
Advertisement