Etymology
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sour (adj.)

Old English sur "sour, tart, acid, fermented," from Proto-Germanic *sura- "sour" (source also of Old Norse surr, Middle Dutch suur, Dutch zuur, Old High German sur, German sauer), from PIE root *suro- "sour, salty, bitter" (source also of Old Church Slavonic syru, Russian syroi "moist, raw;" Lithuanian sūras "salty," sūris "cheese").

Meaning "having a peevish disposition" is from early 13c. Sense in whisky sour (1885) is "with lemon added" (1862). Sour cream is attested from 1855. French sur "sour, tart" (12c.) is a Germanic loan-word.

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sour (v.)
c. 1300, from sour (adj.). Compare Old High German suren, German säuern. Related: Soured; souring.
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sourball (n.)
1900 as "constantly grumbling person;" 1914 as a type of candy; from sour (adj.) + ball (n.1).
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sourpuss (n.)
1937, from sour (adj.) + puss (n.2) "face."
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sourness (n.)
Old English surnes; see sour (adj.) + -ness.
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sourdough (n.)
early 14c., "leavened bread," also "leaven" (late 14c.), from sour (adj.) + dough. Meaning "fermented dough" is from 1868. The meaning "Arctic prospector or pioneer" is from 1898 Yukon gold rush, from the practice of saving a lump of fermented dough as leaven for raising bread baked during the winter.
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LSD 
"lysergic acid diethylamide," 1950 (as LSD 25), from German LSD (1947), from letters in Lysergsäure-diäthylamid, the German form of the chemical name. For first element, see lysergic. German säure "acid" is cognate with English sour (adj.).
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sorrel (n.)
small perennial plant, late 14c., from Old French surele (12c., Modern French surelle), from sur "sour," from Frankish *sur or some other Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *sura- "sour" (source also of Old High German, Old English sur "sour;" see sour (adj.)). So called for the taste of its leaves.
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sauerkraut (n.)

"a favorite German dish consisting of cabbage cut fine, pressed, salted, and fermented until sour," 1630s, from German Sauerkraut, literally "sour cabbage," from sauer "sour" (from Proto-Germanic *sura-; see sour (adj.)) + Kraut "vegetable, cabbage," from Old High German krut, from Proto-Germanic *kruthan.

They pickle it [cabbage] up in all high Germany, with salt and barberies, and so keepe it all the yeere, being commonly the first dish you have served in at table, which they call their sawerkrant. [James Hart, "Klinike, or the diet of the diseased," 1633]

In U.S. slang, figurative use for "a German" dates from 1858 (compare kraut). "The effort to substitute liberty-cabbage for sauerkraut, made by professional patriots in 1918, was a complete failure." [Mencken]. French choucroute (19c.) is the German word, but via Alsatian German surkrut but with folk etymology alteration in French based on chou "cabbage" + croûte "crust" (n.).

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