Primordial soup is from a concept first expressed 1929 by J.B.S. Haldane. Soup to nuts "everything" is from 1910. Soup-kitchen, "public establishment supported by voluntary contributions, for preparing and serving soup to the poor at no cost" is attested from 1839. In Ireland, souper meant "Protestant clergyman seeking to make proselytes by dispensing soup in charity" (1854).
"thick soup," 1560s, from French potage "soup, broth" (see pottage, which is an earlier English borrowing of the same French word and originally also was spelled with one -t-). Related: Potager.
"soup, meat-broth," c. 1200, potage, "thick stew or soup," literally "food prepared in a pot, that which is put in a pot," from Old French potage "vegetable soup, food cooked in a pot," from pot "pot" (see pot (n.1)). The spelling with double -t- is from early 15c.; the later spelling with one -t- is a later borrowing (see potage).
type of Vietnamese soup, probably from French feu "fire" (see focus (n.)) "as in pot-au-feu, a stew of meat and vegetables of which the broth is drunk separately as a soup" [Ayto, "Diner's Dictionary"] which would have been acquired in Vietnamese during the French colonial period.
c. 1300, jus, juis, jouis, "liquid obtained by boiling herbs," from Old French jus "juice, sap, liquid" (13c.), from Latin ius "broth, sauce, juice, soup," from PIE root *yeue- "to blend, mix food" (cognates: Sanskrit yus- "broth," Greek zymē "a leaven," Old Church Slavonic jucha "broth, soup," Lithuanian jūšė "fish soup"). Meaning "the watery part of fruits or vegetables" is from early 14c. Meaning "liquor" is from 1828; that of "electricity" is first recorded 1896.