Etymology
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sorrow (n.)

Old English sorg "grief, regret, trouble, care, pain, anxiety," from Proto-Germanic *sorg- (source also of Old Saxon sorga, Old Norse sorg, Middle Dutch sorghe, Dutch zorg, Old High German soraga, German sorge, Gothic saurga), perhaps from PIE *swergh- "to worry, be sick" (source also of Sanskrit surksati "cares for," Lithuanian sergu, sirgti "to be sick," Old Church Slavonic sraga "sickness," Old Irish serg "sickness"). Not connected etymologically with sore (adj.) or sorry.

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sorrow (v.)
Old English sorgian, from sorg (see sorrow (n.)). Related: Sorrowed; sorrowing. Compare Dutch zorgen, German sorgen, Gothic saurgan.
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sorrowful (adj.)
Old English sorgful "sad, anxious, careful; distressing, doleful;" see sorrow (n.) + -ful. Related: Sorrowfully; sorowfulness.
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rue (n.2)

"sorrow, repentance," Middle English reue, from Old English hreow "grief, repentance, sorrow, regret, penitence," from Proto-Germanic *hrewwo "pain; sadness, regret, repentance," source also of Frisian rou, Middle Dutch rou, Dutch rouw, Old High German (h)riuwa, German reue "sorrow, regret, repentance," nouns from the root of rue (v.).

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pathos (n.)
"quality that arouses pity or sorrow," 1660s, from Greek pathos "suffering, feeling, emotion, calamity," literally "what befalls one," related to paskhein "to suffer," pathein "to suffer, feel," penthos "grief, sorrow;" from PIE root *kwent(h)- "to suffer."
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plaintive (adj.)

late 14c., "lamenting, complaining, giving utterance to sorrow or grief," from Old French plaintif "complaining; wretched, miserable," from plainte (see plaint). Sense of "expressive of sorrow or melancholy, mournful, sad" is recorded from 1570s. Earlier was pleintful "grievous, lamentable" (early 14c.). Related: Plaintively; plaintiveness.

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harm (n.)
Old English hearm "hurt, pain; evil, grief; insult," from Proto-Germanic *harmaz (source also of Old Saxon harm, Old Norse harmr "grief, sorrow," Old Frisian herm "insult; pain," Old High German harm, German Harm "grief, sorrow, harm"), from PIE *kormo- "pain." To be in harm's way is from 1660s.
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eh 
1560s as an exclamation of sorrow; as an exclamation of inquiry, doubt, or slight surprise, usually with questions, from 1773.
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ruth (n.)

c. 1200, perhaps late Old English, ruthe, "misery, sorrow, grief;" also "pity, compassion, sorrow for the misery of another" (often in have ruth, take ruth); also "remorse, repentance, regret;" from Old Norse hryggð "ruth, sorrow," from hryggr "sorrowful, grieved" (see rue (v.)) + Proto-Germanic abstract noun suffix *-itho (see -th (2)).

Or else formed in English from reuwen "to rue" on the model of true/truth, etc. The Old English word was rue (n.2).

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mournful (adj.)

"expressing sorrow; oppressed with grief; doleful," early 15c., morneful, from mourn + -ful. Related: Mournfully; mournfulness.

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