Etymology
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socialism (n.)

1837, from French socialisme (1832) or formed in English (based on socialist) from social (adj.) + -ism. Perhaps first in reference to Robert Owen's communes. "Pierre Leroux (1797-1871), idealistic social reformer and Saint-Simonian publicist, expressly claims to be the originator of the word socialisme" [Klein, also see OED discussion]. The word begins to be used in French in the modern sense c. 1835.

I find that socialism is often misunderstood by its least intelligent supporters and opponents to mean simply unrestrained indulgence of our natural propensity to heave bricks at respectable persons. [George Bernard Shaw, "An Unsocial Socialist," 1900]
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socialist (n.)

"one who advocates socialism," 1827, from French socialiste, or else a native formation based on it, in reference to the teachings of Comte de Saint-Simon, founder of French socialism. The word begins to be used in French in the modern sense c. 1835. Socialista, with a different sense, was applied 18c. to followers and pupils of Dutch jurist Grotius (1583-1645), from his use of socialistus. Socialist realism attested from 1934.

Prison is a Socialist's Paradise, where equality prevails, everything is supplied and competition is eliminated. [Elbert Hubbard, "The Note Book," 1927]

Compare socialism.

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anti-socialist (adj.)
also antisocialist, 1841, "opposed to socialism;" see anti- + socialist.
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opportunism (n.)

"policy of adopting actions to circumstances while holding goals unchanged," 1870, originally a word in continental politics; see opportune + -ism. Compare opportunist. Later, in the jargon of socialism and communism, "policy of concession to bourgeois society in the course of developing socialism."

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socialization (n.)
1839, in reference to personal associations; 1884 in reference to socialism; noun of action from socialize.
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utopian (adj.)

1550s, with reference to More's fictional country; 1610s as "extravagantly ideal, impossibly visionary," from utopia + -an. As a noun meaning "visionary idealist" it is recorded by 1832 (also in this sense was utopiast, 1845). Utopian socialism is from 1849, originally pejorative, in reference to the Paris uprising of 1848; also a dismissive term in communist jargon, in reference to the ideas of Fourier, St. Simon, and Owen, "the pre-scientific and infantile stage" of modern, practical socialism.

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reformist (n.)

1580s, originally religious, "a Protestant;" from reform + -ist. Political sense of "one who proposes or favors reform to the order of society," with varying specifics, is from 1640s. Related: Reformism (1904), which was specifically the theory that socialism might be established gradually via a nation's own institutions rather than only by revolution.

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sand-lot (n.)

"plot of empty land in a town or suburb," by 1878, from sand (n.) + lot. As an adjective in reference to the kind of sports or games played on sand-lots by amateurs, it is recorded from 1890 in American English. Earlier it had reference to socialism or communism based on the political movement that originated among orators in the sand-lots of San Francisco (by 1867).

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revisionism (n.)

1903, from revision + -ism. Originally in reference to a policy of introducing socialism gradually, by evolution rather than revolution, used as a term of abuse by Marxists. The general sense of "revised attitude toward some situation, doctrine, etc." is by 1921. Revisionist (adj.) "favoring or supporting revision" (of a creed, law, etc.) is from 1850; as a noun from 1854 in reference to one who favors or supports revision; specifically in reference to historical narratives by 1934, originally of the causes of World War I.

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liberal (n.)

1820, "member of the progressive and reformist political party of Great Britain, an anti-Whig," from liberal (adj.). General meaning "person of liberal political principles or tendencies" (without reference to party) is by 1832; in reference to persons of a political ideology not conservative or fascist but short of socialism, from c. 1920. Also used from early 20c. of ministers from less-dogmatic Christian churches.

Conservative, n. A statesman who is enamored of existing evils, as distinguished from the Liberal, who wishes to replace them with others. [Ambrose Bierce, "Devil's Dictionary," 1911]
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