Etymology
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Nagasaki 
Japanese city, named for its situation, from naga "long" + saki "headland, promontory."
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Dartmouth 

town in Devon, England, named for its situation at the mouth of the Dart River, which is perhaps from a Celtic word for "oak."

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Katie 
fem. proper name, diminutive form of Kate. Noun Katie-bar-the-door "a brouhaha, a turbulent and combative situation" is by 1888; the notion is "get ready for trouble."
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Monmouth 

town in Wales, so called from its situation where the River Monnow flows into the larger Wye. The Welsh name, Trefynwy, "homestead on the Mynwy," preserves the native form of the name.

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Koblenz 

also Coblenz, city in Germany, founded by the Romans as a military outpost c. 8 B.C.E., from Latin ad confluentes "at the confluence" (see confluence); so named for its situation at the confluence of the Rhine and Moselle rivers.

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Medicare (n.)

name for a state-run health insurance system for the elderly, 1962, originally in a Canadian context, from medical (adj.) + care (n.). U.S. use is from 1965; the U.S. program was set up by Title XVIII of the Social Security Act of 1965.

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Wendy 
as a woman's given name, apparently coined by James M. Barrie ("Peter and Wendy," 1911); it first registers on the U.S. Social Security list of popular baby names in 1936 and was in the top 40 names for girls born in the U.S. from 1965 to 1976
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Bolshevik (n.)
"Russian radical socialist of the revolutionary period," 1917, from Russian bol'shevik (plural bol'sheviki), bol'shiy "greater," comparative of adjective bol'shoy "big, great" (as in Bolshoi Ballet), from Old Church Slavonic boljiji "larger," from PIE root *bel- "strong" (source also of Sanskrit balam "strength, force," Greek beltion "better," Phrygian balaios "big, fast," Old Irish odbal "strong," Welsh balch "proud;" Middle Dutch, Low German, Frisian pal "strong, firm").

The faction of the Russian Social Democratic Worker's Party after a split in 1903 that was either "larger" or "more extreme" (or both) than the Mensheviks (from Russian men'shij "less"); after they seized power in 1917, the name was applied generally to Russian communists, then also to anyone opposed to an existing order or social system. Bolshevism is recorded from 1917.
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Hanoi 
city in northern Vietnam, from Vietnamese Hà Nôi, literally "River Inside," from "river" + nôi "inside." So called in reference to its situation in a bend of the Red River. Known 18c. as Dong Kinh "Eastern Capital," which was corrupted by Europeans into Tonkin, Tonquin, and that name was used in the French colonial period to refer to the entire region and extended to the gulf to the east.
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Chester 

Cestre (1086), from Old English Legacæstir (735) "City of the Legions," from Old English ceaster "Roman town or city," from Latin castrum "fortified place" (see castle (n.)). A post-Roman name; the place was the base of the Second Legion Adiutrix in the 70s C.E. and later the 20th Legion Valeria Victrix, but the town's name in Roman times was Deoua (c. 150 C.E.), from its situation on the River Dee, a Celtic river name meaning "the goddess, the holy one."

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