Etymology
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slide (v.)

Old English slidan (intransitive, past tense slad, past participle sliden) "to glide, slip, fall, fall down;" figuratively "fail, lapse morally, err; be transitory or unstable," from Proto-Germanic *slidan "to slip, slide" (source also of Old High German slito, German Schlitten "sleigh, sled"), from PIE root *sleidh- "to slide, slip" (source also of Lithuanian slysti "to glide, slide," Old Church Slavonic sledu "track," Greek olisthos "slipperiness," olisthanein "to slip," Middle Irish sloet "slide").

Meaning "slip, lose one's footing" is from early 13c. Transitive sense from 1530s. Phrase let (something) slide "let it take its own course, take no consideration of" is in Chaucer (late 14c.) and Shakespeare. Sliding scale in reference to payments, etc., is from 1842.

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slide (n.)
1560s, from slide (v.). As a smooth inclined surface down which something can be slid, from 1680s; the playground slide is from 1890. Meaning "collapse of a hillside, landslide" is from 1660s. As a working part of a musical instrument from 1800 (as in slide-trombone, 1891). Meaning "rapid downturn" is from 1884. Meaning "picture prepared for use with a projector" is from 1819 (in reference to magic lanterns). Baseball sense is from 1886. Slide-guitar is from 1968.
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slide-rule (n.)
also slide rule, mathematical calculating tool, 1838, from slide (v.) + rule (n.). So called for its method of operation. Earlier sliding-rule (1660s).
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slid 
past tense and past participle of slide (v.).
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slider (n.)
1520s, "skater," agent noun from slide (v.). As a type of terrapin, from 1877; as a type of baseball pitch, 1936.
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backslide (v.)
in the religious sense "abandon faith or devotions, apostatize," 1580s, from back (adv.) + slide (v.). Related: Backslider; backsliding (1550s).
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luge (n.)
kind of small toboggan, 1905, from French luge "small coasting sled," from Savoy dialect, from Medieval Latin sludia "sled" (9c.), which is perhaps from a Gaulish word from the same root as English sled, slide.
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landslide (n.)
also land-slide, 1841, "fall or down-slide of a mass of rock, earth, etc. from a slope or mountain," American English, from land (n.) + slide (n.). Earlier was landslip (1670s), which is preferred in Britain. Old English used eorðgebyrst in this sense; literally "earth-burst." Landslide in the political sense "lopsided electoral victory" is attested from 1888.
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slither (v.)
early 15c., variant of Middle English slidder "to slip, slide," from Old English slidrian "to slip, slide on a loose slope," a frequentative form of slidan "to slide" (see slide (v.)). For spelling change, compare gather. Meaning "to walk in a sliding manner" is attested from 1848. In reference to reptile motion, attested from 1839. Related: Slithered; slithering.
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sled (n.)
early 14c., "a dragged vehicle used for transport of heavy goods," from Middle Dutch sledde "sled," from Proto-Germanic *slid- (source also of Old Saxon slido, Old Norse sleði, Danish slæde, Swedish släde, Old High German slito, German Schlitten "sledge"), from the same root as Old English slidan (see slide (v.)). Not found in Old English. In reference to a sleigh used for travel or recreation, it is attested from 1580s, now mainly American English.
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